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Notes on video lecture:
Four Stories of Empire in Judea: Babylonian, Macedonian, Seleucid, and Roman
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Rome, Herod, Persian, organized, Hellenism, Greece, Hasmonean, Aristotle, Judaism, Daniel, Zeus, Nero, corruption, Cyrus, Judea, Pontius, Levant, Roman, Nebuchadnezzar, Shamayin, Issus
Paul was a Jewish man writing in the context of the            Empire
writes to Jews and Gentiles who are interested in participating in               
four contextual stories of empire
1. Babylonian and                Empires
587: Jerusalem destroyed by                             , king of Babylonia
many of the elites of Judah were taken into exile to Babylonia
this is where the story of              happened
a story written during another time time of repression under Antiochus IV
539 BC, Babylonian Empire taken over by Persian king           
Persians allowed Jews to return
some Jews stayed in Babylonia
520-515 BC: Persians allowed the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem
Judah became a typical client temple state
2. Macedonian Empire
had long been culturally allied to             
considered itself a disseminator of Greek culture
Alexander the Great
well educated in Greek culture,                    one of his teachers
conquered Persian Empire
333 BC: Battle of           , gained control of Palestine and Jerusalem
327 BC: reached India
323 BC: died in Babylon which he had chosen to be the capital of his empire
a time of cultural mixing but also of the spread of                   , i.e. Greek language, traditions, and culture mixed with local traditions to the east
after he died, generals spent a lot of time fighting over the empire
two dynasties that emerged from the successors of Alexander: Seleucids and Ptolemies which rushed up and down the              area conquering back and forth
3. Ptolemies vs. Seleucids (300BC-30BC)
Jewish high priest is allied to the Seleucids
receives permission to constitute Jerusalem as a Greek city
a time of Hellenization of the region, including the association of the Jewish God with         
this offended many Jews
Jason was ousted
169: Antiochus IV conducted campaigns against Egypt
168: on way back, plundered Jerusalem temple in order to pay his soldiers
Jews rebelled, Antiochus captured Jerusalem and turned it militarily occupied city
Antiochus brought the sacred rock of Zeus Baal                  into the temple
annulled Jewish laws, told in Second Maccabees
                   Jews retake Jerusalem
Jews from the country took the temple from Jewish elite as well as from Antiochus
force circumcisions and conversion on many inhabitants
some Jews (Essenes) retreated to desert in disagreement with what they saw as                      and improper rule of Hasmonean Jews
awaited a day when two messiahs, a warrior and a priest would help them retake the temple
4. Roman domination of           
63 BC: Romans enter Jerusalem and end Hasmonean rule in Palestine
Rome established a new dynasty loyal to         
           the Great
tried to be king over all, not just Jews
built pagan cities, temples, as well as Jewish cities
after Herod the Great, Roman administrators were even less sensitive to the needs of the populace
brutality of                Pilate, under whom Jesus was killed
66 AD: Jews were revolting against the Roman power, but not very                   
68 AD: chaos at the head of the Roman Empire,          committed suicide
70 AD: Titus besieged and captured Jerusalem, destroyed the city and the Second Temple
132 CE: Simon bar Kokhba, Jewish leader of a revolt against the Roman Empire, established an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince"), his state was conquered by the Hadrian in 135 following a two-year war
Rome printed coins to celebrate the victory over Judea
587 BCE to 70 CE: Second Temple Period
Paul's existing letters only take up a decade of that time in the mid-first century before the destruction of the second temple


satrap (pl. satrapies), n. [SAH-trap] name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid (Persian) Empires and in several of their successors, also used today to refer to world leaders or governors who are heavily influenced by larger world superpowers or hegemonies and act as their surrogates  "Seleucus [say-LOO-kuss] was an infantry general under Alexander the Great, was appointed Satrap of Babylon, and from 312 BC, he ruthlessly expanded his dominions and eventually conquered the Persian and Median lands."
diadochi, n. [digh-AD-oh-kee] the rival generals, family and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for the control of Alexander's empire after his death in 323 BC  "Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 358 BC – 281 BC) was one of the Diadochi, having previously served as an infantry general under Alexander the Great, he eventually assumed the title of basileus and established the Seleucid Empire over much of Alexander's near eastern territories."


######################### (215-164 BC)
Greek king of the Seleucid Empire (312-63BC, Iran/Levant/Turkey)
  • near-conquest of Egypt
  • had been a political hostage of the Roman Republic
######################### (358-281 BC)
Infantry general under Alexander the Great, was appointed Satrap of Babylon
  • from 312 BC, he ruthlessly expanded his dominions and eventually conquered the Persian and Median lands
  • he not only ruled Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire
######################### (74-4 BC)
Known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem
  • Roman client king of Judea, has been described as "a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis",
  • "the evil genius of the Judean nation"
  • "prepared to commit any crime in order to gratify his unbounded ambition"
  • "the greatest builder in Jewish history"
  • the Second Temple in Jerusalem was known as "Herod's Temple"

Spelling Corrections:



what is the difference between the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah?
KINGDOM OF JUDAH (930 BC - 586 BC): referred to as the "Southern Kingdom" whereas the "Northern Kingdom" was the Kingdom of Israel, at the beginning, the Kingdom of Judah tried to establish rule over the north, 587 BC: Nebuchadnezzar destroys Jerusalem, KINGDOM OF ISRAEL (930 BC - 720 BC) conquered by the Assyrian Empire
empire from 215BC-164BC in Iran/Levant/Turkey
Seleucid [sel-OO-sid] Empire
northern Iranian empire from 678-549 BC
Median Empire
western and central Asian empire from 550–330 BC
Achaemenid [ah-KEE-men-id] Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great
kingdom founded 305 BC after death of Alexander the Great, ended with the death of Cleopatra and Roman conquest in 30 BC
Ptolemaic [tall-ah-MAY-ik] Kingdom
ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions between 140-116BC
Hasmonean dynasty
Paul's Letters: Authorship and Audience
Form and Physicality of Ancient Letter Writing
Paul's Letter Writing Within the Tradition of Ancient Rhetoric
Ancient Responses to the Letters of Paul
How Ancient People Wrote about Their Place in History: Polybius and Daniel
Four Stories of Empire in Judea: Babylonian, Macedonian, Seleucid, and Roman
The Roman Empire's Knowledge of Early Christian Communities
Josephus on the Definition of Jew and Christian in the Ancient World
Understanding the Historical Josephus
The Priene Inscription
Intertwining of Religion and Politics in the Roman Empire
Letters to the Corinthians
Slavery and Freedom in Roman Corinth
Slavery in First Corinthians