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Notes on video lecture:
Paul's Letters: Authorship and Audience
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
church, corpus, common, academic, qahal, urban, supra, structures, ekklesia, Athens, Rome, 57, koine, authorship, retroject, 300, Greek, Aramaic, captive, authors, Sosthenes, Demosthenes, Christian
in Paul's letters, other figures begin to emerge as               
e.g. Silvanus, Timothy,                   , Tertius
what was going on as these letters were produced and first read aloud among the                 ?
in some letters we see that a community begins to emerge
a prescript consists of three parts
superscriptio: the name of the sender
adscriptio: the name of the addressee
salutatio: the greeting, often followed by prayer or well wishes to addressee
e.g. Philippians 1:1
prescripts are X-to-Y greetings and they don't seem particularly interesting, something like modern day e-mail headers: to someone, from someone, regarding something
but if you look closely, you can find exciting details in these prescripts
                     isn't so simple: it's not just Paul writing, he and others co-send the letters
audience isn't straight-forward either
the author Paul presents himself in different ways to different audiences, in one as a slave, in another as an apostle, in another a               
time and language of letters of Paul
Paul's letters were the earliest texts written in the                    canon, or the New Testament
Paul wrote roughly between 49 and      CE
CE stands for Common Era, BCE stands for Become the Common Era
this is a more                 , less religiously-inflected and more neutral way of talking about time
often people say AD, which means Anno Domini or "Year of our Lord" and BC means "Before Christ"
in different religions, people have different ways of dating history
we know that Paul wrote more letters than the ones contained in the New Testament
we know that communities wrote back to him, but none of those letters survive
Paul's letters were written in           
Latin was the primary language of those in power
               and Hebrew, among other languages, were in use among Jews and others in Roman province of Judaea
Greek was the common language of the Roman Empire
we don't know if Paul knew Hebrew, Aramaic or Latin
the Greek in which Paul wrote was called "          " [koyn-AY]
the common           -regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic period and Roman antiquity
had developed and spread following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC
it was the              language of the time, not the more literary versions of Greek that imitated the stylus of the classical period of Greece like                        or Plato
in all the prescripts, except the letter to the Romans, we find the word ekklesia
it's where we get the word ecclesiatical: of or relating to the Christian Church or its clergy.
ekklesia usually is translated as "            ", but with Paul's letters ew're handling the very earliest materials in the New Testament, materials that existed before churches were built, and before the term Christian had emerged and had been coined
if we simply translate ekklesia as church, we might forget these facts
it's about        years later that we get church structures
if we use the word "church", we might                    a Gothic cathedral, or storefront sanctuary, or a Lutheran church building into the mid first century CE
in the first century CE, those who "were in Christ" had no built                      for worship or gathering, only 300 years later do we find church architecture
what did the term ekklesia mean to those who heard it?
1. a translation of the hebrew term           , which signals a cultic congregation or assembly of Jewish thought
2. indicated that the earliest communities in Christ were like voluntary associations, like workers' guilds or religious clubs
3. the best definition is a political and civic assembly, a term which had been used since the Classical period, e.g. 5th century BCE in              to refer to the assembly of the city
we find the term ekklesia mainly in Paul's letter and in the Acts of the Apostles
in choose to meet and assemble, these earliest communities in Christ aren't unique
Jewish groups, groups of artisans, followers of Dionysus, and others all choose to meet, live, engage in worship, sing hymns, and engage in conversations about ethics, philosophy, theology and the best way to live their lives
was the ekklesia a place of democratic debate and deliberative discourse
in all cases but one, Paul addresses a city or region
we get an            perspective into the ancient world
key cities of travel and trade in the Eastern Roman Empire and to a community in          itself
Paul wrote his letters as occasionally and each with a specific purpose
he didn't write them with the purpose to be in a unit as they are now
he appeals to each ekklesia's different situations
there are some letters to which Paul refers which we no longer have
in general, in history, the remains of those who were poor often do not survive
Paul referring to himself
apostle, slave, captive
these are powerful mini biographies and help to frame what he was writing and to whom
his letters aren't composed as a systematic theology, or as a unified              of literature
each letter is aimed a different community with a different situation
Paul's Letters: Authorship and Audience
Form and Physicality of Ancient Letter Writing
Paul's Letter Writing Within the Tradition of Ancient Rhetoric
Ancient Responses to the Letters of Paul
How Ancient People Wrote about Their Place in History: Polybius and Daniel
Four Stories of Empire in Judea: Babylonian, Macedonian, Seleucid, and Roman
The Roman Empire's Knowledge of Early Christian Communities
Josephus on the Definition of Jew and Christian in the Ancient World
Understanding the Historical Josephus
The Priene Inscription
Intertwining of Religion and Politics in the Roman Empire
Letters to the Corinthians
Slavery and Freedom in Roman Corinth
Slavery in First Corinthians