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Notes on video lecture:
Ancient Responses to the Letters of Paul
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
scripture, Bible, Seneca, third, 800, circulating, 50, ultraviolet, HarperCollins, Jewish, discredit, Charles, Carthage, communities, Egypt, assemblies, biographies, testament, codices, identical, Marcion, Ignatius, Papyrus, Roman
we often read Paul's letters in the context of the           
                           Study Bible
used to understand the ancient, historical context of the writing of the Bible
all historical writings have                       
where they originated
where they traveled
who reads them and where
how they were interpreted
circulation of Paul's letters
written as individual letters aimed at particular                       
often co-written
sometimes written by scribe and signed by Paul
this was a common writing practice of the time
at some point the letters of Paul became part of a                        set
became part of a larger corpus that was understood to have relevance for a broader set of communities
the earliest manuscripts we have of Paul's letters date to the            century, roughly 150 years after he wrote them
approximately        early copies of the Letters of Paul have survived to the current day
no two copies are completely                   
P46 or                46
the oldest collected manuscript of Paul's letters
dated between 175AD and 225AD
part is at the University of Michigan and part is in the Chester Beatty Collection in Dublin
in good shape but the outer pages don't survive
begins with Romans 4:17 and ends with 1 Thessalonians 5:28
many pages still have their page numbers
from this we know there were probably seven missing outer leaves
scribe miscalculated how many pages were needed
after half of the book was filled, he began to write more lines per page
doesn't seem to contain the entire collection ascribed to a standard Bible
four early                that date from 4th or 5th century
not scrolls but codices, or book-like collections of papers bound together
contain all or parts of Paul's letters
1. Codex Alexandrinus, 5th century
one of the earliest and most complete manuscripts of the Bible
given to                I of England in the 17th century
until the later purchase of the Codex Sinaiticus, it was the best manuscript of the Greek Bible deposited in Britain.
today, it is with the Codex Sinaiticus in one of the showcases in the Ritblat Gallery of the British Library
contains all letters of Paul with only a few pages missing
2. Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, 5th century
originally contained large sections of Old and New Testament
12th century, ink was washed off
texts of Christian writer Ephrem were written onto it
                       lighting helps us see the palimpsest's original text
contains portions of every book of the New Testament with the exception of 2 John and 2 Thessalonians
non of the individual texts within the New Testament is complete
3. Codex Sinaiticus, 4th century
contains all the books of the New Testament
1844 discovered at the monestery of Saint Catherine in           
1869 given to Russia
1933 sold to the British Museum
also has texts that are generally not known in Bibles
2 Esdras
1 and 4 Maccabees
Epistle of Barnabas
Shepherd of Hermas
4. Codex Vaticanus
not known where it was found
1481 recorded in Vatican library
lacks Timothy, 2 Timothy, titus and Philemon
by the 3rd century CE, Christians were copying Paul's letters and circulating them
how did early Christian's evaluate Paul's letters?
in second century already, some Christian considered Paul's writings to be                   
the word "graphas" was used to not only refer to the Jewish writings but Paul's own letters
people against Paul
               of Sinope (85AD-160AD)
a bishop in early Christianity
completely rejected the existence of the deity described in the              Scriptures
affirmed the Father of Christ to be the true God
denounced by the Church Fathers and he chose to separate himself from the Imperial Church
we know about him mostly from those who hated him
none of his writings survive
was wealthy, born into Christian home
125: moved to Rome, made donation there
Irenaeus, 180 AD
lived in Gaul
referred to Marcion as a heretic
"he mutilated the Epistles of Paul"
said he took out all references about the Creator God from the Old Testament and anything about the Jewish prophets
Tertullian (160AD, 225AD)
prolific early Christian author from                 
Paul's letters circulated but were also an object of controversy
it was argued which texts and which parts of the texts were authoritative and useful
and many agreed that some texts of Paul were sacred, but it was often not agreed which texts those were
pseudo-Clementine literature
from Syria, around 200 AD
this collection shows examples of people who were against Paul and who wanted to                    him
letter from Apostle Peter to James, brother of Jesus, or as if it were this
in the non-canonical Gospel of Thomas, Jesus names James his successor: "The disciples said to Jesus, 'We know that you will depart from us. Who will be our leader?' Jesus said to them, Where you are, you are to go to James the Just, for whose sake heaven and earth came into existence."
suggests that Paul was leading early Christians astray
uses the word Simon as a code for Paul
reinterpret and question the letters of Paul
Epiphanius of Salamis (320-403)
collected heresy texts
some of these texts suggested that Paul was Greek, not Jewish
met Jewish girl and became Jewish
fell out with Jewish girl and rebelled against Judaism
people who valued Paul
it is generally agreed that Paul wrote these letters in this order, all in the New Testament:
1 Thessalonians
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
there are also texts in the New Testament that are about Paul:
Acts of the Apostles
written in early second century, roughly      years after Paul's last letter was written
texts written in someone else's name
some of Paul's texts were written by others
in antiquity, it was not uncommon for a student to write in a teacher's name
it was a common educational assignment to pen a text in a famous writer's style
we also find letter's written in Plato's name, written after he lived
2 Thessalonians, for example, imitates 1 Thessalonians yet it indicates a different social setting
1 and 2 Timothy and Titus
these are conceived more as a                    to Paul's life, a kind of document of what he would have written as his last words had he been able to do so
Colossians and Ephesians are called deutro-Pauline materials
clearly influenced by Paul's thought, but aspects of grammar, vocabulary and theology indicate they were probably written later
the text of Hebrews sometimes circulated with Paul's letters
there are pseudepigraphical letters betwen Paul and Roman philosopher and politician             
fourth century Christians wanted to imagine Paul in contact with a key Roman thinker and writer, Seneca
had Seneca admit to Paul that Nero persecuted Christians and Jews unjustly
in 2nd century, stories about Paul called "The Acts of Paul" circulated around the Mediterranean basin
the way Paul wrote was imitated by many
e.g.                  assumed that after his death, his letters would be collected and disseminated
was chosen to serve as the Bishop of Antioch, succeeding Saint Peter and St. Evodius (who died around AD 67).
en route to Rome, he met his martyrdom by being fed to wild beasts
Paul's letters and writings which refer to them show us how the early Christian                      tried to figure out who they were, how they fit into the broader political, economic, cultural and religious matrix of the            Empire, and in doing so, they chose which of Paul's letters and which parts of Paul's letters they wished to use and which they chose to abandon.


topos (pl. topoi), n. a traditional theme or motif; a literary convention  "A slightly different kind of topos is the invocation of nature (sky, seas, animals, etc.) for various rhetorical purposes, such as witnessing to an oath, rejoicing or praising God, or sharing in the mourning of the speaker."
vellum, n. a parchment made from calf skin, as opposed to that from other animals  "The writing was washed from parchment or vellum using milk and oat bran."
codex (pl. codices), n. [COH-dee-seez] a historical book made up of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar, with hand-written content  "The Codex Vaticanus is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial (style of writing characterized by somewhat rounded capital letters) codices."
palimpsest, n. [PAL-imp-sest] a manuscript page from a scroll or book from which the text has been scraped or washed off and which can be used again(added)  "It contained fragments of Fronto's correspondence with Verus, which overlapped the Milan palimpsest."
Paul's Letters: Authorship and Audience
Form and Physicality of Ancient Letter Writing
Paul's Letter Writing Within the Tradition of Ancient Rhetoric
Ancient Responses to the Letters of Paul
How Ancient People Wrote about Their Place in History: Polybius and Daniel
Four Stories of Empire in Judea: Babylonian, Macedonian, Seleucid, and Roman
The Roman Empire's Knowledge of Early Christian Communities
Josephus on the Definition of Jew and Christian in the Ancient World
Understanding the Historical Josephus
The Priene Inscription
Intertwining of Religion and Politics in the Roman Empire
Letters to the Corinthians
Slavery and Freedom in Roman Corinth
Slavery in First Corinthians