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Notes on video lecture:
Mind/Body Dualism and Cognitive Control
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
unpleasant, systems, heart, mastery, civilized, religions, frugal, China, split, rationally, math, incorrect, implicit, opposition, impulse, conscience, tiring, enlightenment, Plato, dualists, myself, weary, ethical, inhabit, metaphorical, longer, expensive, umpf, harmony, concept, appetites, worry, cognition, West, slow, cold, rational, chariot, disordered, xin
mind/body dualism in the         
very old tradition going back to people like           
seen as fundamentally in                     
the                  faculties, the mind, trying to control the body
Plato's                allegory
charioteer (intellect) tries to control the first winged horse (rational/moral               ) and the second winged horse (irrational passions/                  ) with the goal of driving them toward                           
the charioteer (the mind) trying to bring the horses (the body) under control
mind/body dualism in           
some scholars say there is no                of this
but they do have a tension between (1) rational faculties /                      thought, and (2) the desires and emotions
the closest word for mind is        [sheen]
refers to the           
pictograph of the heart
translated as mind, heart and heart/mind
a locus of                   
conscious thought
will power
ability to think                     
cognitive emotions such as            and anxiety
mohists and legalists
rationality controls emotions
emotions are fundamentally                      and antisocial
can bring them under control if we exert will power
confucians and taoists
a slightly different take on the mind
mind reshapes the emotions and desires to bring them in               
from a contemporary scientific perspective it's a little bit puzzling why people are mind/body                  because to the best of our knowledge we are not ghosts in the machine
to the best of our knowledge our rational and conscious thought is part of the body
we are integrated mind-body                designed by evolution to more through the world in a certain way
so from a contemporary empirical system, it seems that mind/body dualism is just                   
and yet this intuition that there's something different about minds, and that minds and bodies are different in kind, seems to be a universal human cognition, so why is this?
the structure of our cognition makes us feel like we are two different things
we experience ourselves as being            in an important way
we get a sense of this when we analyze phrases that we use, e.g. "I had to drag              out of bed this morning", who is being dragged and who is doing the dragging?
these are                          expressions but the split itself is not entirely metaphorical
at a functional level, we seem to have two different modes of cognition, referred to as hot and cold cognition
hot cognition
emotion
fast
            , i.e. doesn't require a lot of resources
automatic
mostly unconscious
we tend not to have access to hot cognition, these are the tacit, embodied programs that we have
the body
cold cognition
non-emotional
conscious thought
physiologically                   
reflection
our narrative account of ourselves
these two systems interact with each other
cognitive control
using the conscious mind to control the unconscious mind / the body
e.g. the ability to "drag yourself out of bed in the morning"
the Stroop Effect
a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task, e.g. when the name of a color is printed in a color not denoted by the name, then naming the color of the word takes              and is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color
you feel yourself exerting cognitive control in order to name the correct color of the letters, it feels unnatural
there is something                      about exerting cognitive control
studies have shown the cognitive control is a limited resource and exerting it is mentally             
what's going on is you have two automatic systems
1. your color recognition system
2. your language reading system, and they are in conflict
two otherwise quite automatic, hot-system-1 processes that are in fighting each other, and your brain has to quickly and unexpected pull in your cognitive control to sort out what is should be determined to be giving you correct information
requires the "         " of conscious effort
cognitive control is the key to human                of the planet
allows us to delay gratification
allows us to train ourselves to have new dispositions
allows us to inhabit ecosystems which our bodies did not evolve to be able to               
it's relatively         
we experience this with the stroop test
physiologically expensive
when you exert cognitive control in one domain, you are less able to do it in another
i.e. becoming            from mental work
easy to overload
e.g. count backwards by 5 while performing some          problem or remembering a string of digits
another theory is that it has more to do with switching task priorities
we can't be exerting cognitive control all the time
90% of what we do during the day are being done by                  systems, the hot-systems
10% is being done by cognitive         -systems
this has ramifications in                    and governments
political systems
how are people making the decisions they are making
ethical models
how to train people to be more               
this issue also concerns our human nature, the hot-systems we are born with, and what needs to happen to that if we are to become                   

Spelling Corrections:

psysiologicallyphysiologically

Ideas and Concepts:

Book tip via tonight's Chinese Thought: "Ancient Wisdom Meets Modern Science class:"Thinking, Fast and Slow", by Daniel Kahneman. "Kahneman's thesis is that the human animal is systematically illogical. Not only do we mis-assess situations, but we do so following fairly predictable patterns. Kahneman introduces two mental systems, one that is fast and the other slow. Together they shape our impressions of the world around us and help us make choices. System 1 is largely unconscious and it makes snap judgments based upon our memory of similar events and our emotions. System 2 is painfully slow, and is the process by which we consciously check the facts and think carefully and rationally. Problem is, System 2 is easily distracted and hard to engage, and System 1 is wrong as often as it is right, and System 1 is easily swayed by our emotions."
From the folk-mind-body-dualism department, via tonight's Chinese Thought: "Ancient Wisdom Meets Modern Science class:"From a contemporary scientific perspective it's a little bit puzzling why people are mind/body dualists, since to the best of our knowledge we are not ghosts in the machine but integrated mind-body systems which produce a structure of cognition such that we experience having a more conscious rational part of ourselves as well as a less conscious, less rational, emotional part of ourselves, yet this idea that we are constituted by two completely separate and different things, seems to be a universal human intuition."
Via tonight's Chinese Thought: "Ancient Wisdom Meets Modern Science class, the Stroop Effect, n. a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task, e.g. when the name of a color is printed in a color not denoted by the name, then naming the color of the word takes longer and is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color. You feel yourself exerting cognitive control in order to name the correct color of the letters, it feels unnatural, there is something unpleasant about exerting cognitive control, and studies have shown the cognitive control is a limited resource and exerting it is mentally tiring. What's going on is you have two automatic systems:(1) your color recognition system, and (2) your language reading system, and they are in conflict, two otherwise quite automatic, hot-system-1 processes that are in fighting each other, and your brain has to quickly and unexpected pull in your cognitive control to sort out what is should be determined to be giving you correct information."
The Definition of Religion
Mind/Body Dualism and Cognitive Control
Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics
Wu-Wei, Dao, Tien and De
The Shang Dynasty (1554-1045 BC)
The Beginnings of Written Chinese History
Eastern Holistic Thinking and the Paradox of Virtue
The Golden Age of the Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE)
Philosophical and Conceptual Innovations in Zhou Thought
Confucius and the Analects
Confucius: I Transmit, I Do Not Innovate
Confucius' Use of Ritual as a Tool
Confucius' View on Learning vs. The Enlightenment
Confucius and Holistic Education
Confucius and the Art of Self-Cultivation
At Home in Virtue
Non-Coercive Comportment, Virtue, and Charisma of the Zhou
The Transition to Becoming Sincere
The Primitivists in the Analects
Laozi and the Daodejing
Laozi: Stop the Journey and Return Home
Laozi and The Desires of the Eye
Laozi: He Who Speaks Does Not Know
The Concept of Reversion
Laozi on Shutting Down the Prefrontal Cortex
The Guodian Laozi
Mozi and Materialist State Consequentialism
Mozi's Idea of Ideological Unity
Mozi's Doctrine of Impartial Caring
Mozi's Anti-Confucian Chapters
Mozi's Religious Fundamentalism and Organized Activism
The Language Crisis in the Warring States Period