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Notes on video lecture:
Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Daoism, deontology, tribal, Aristotle, reciprocal, favor, desires, Mohists, democracies, see, guarantee, unchangeable, strangers, reflex, society, born, civilization, duties, institutional, virtue, trustworthy, kin, law, payoffs, reason, Han, anonymous, primates, Mill, evolutionary, education, institutional, dispositions, unified, trustfully, Chinese, 150, behavior, Kant, spontaneous, relatives, novel, law, maxims, internalized, utilitarianism, reasoning, genes, perception, normative, worried, commitment
                         is a relatively new development for human beings
for most of                          history, and that of our line of primates, we live in small-scale societies
usually groups of no more than       
most of them                    or at least others known to us
you could generally keep track of others within the group
this is how                  still live
around 12,000 years ago, there was a transition to                   , large-scale agricultural communities
interacting with                   
having one-off interactions with people we may not        again
this was a completely            way of living compared to the history of human beings up to this point
99.9% of human beings today live in this kind of environment
cooperation puzzle based on:
1.        selection
you tend to cooperation with relatives because they tend to be                        and because they are carrying copies of your           
2.                      altruism
"I do you a favor, you do me a           "
these two features of relationships function throughout the animal world
but something more than these two features has to be going on in large-scale human societies, since:
we interact                      with many strangers throughout every day
many of these interactions are one-off without any                    that you will see that person again
claim #1:                            hypothesis
our hot psychology, system 1 systems, have remained unchanged
on a "hot" level, we are still basically              animals and so this coherence in large societies is based on instincts and intuitions re-channeled through external institutions
laws which act to suppress our hot cognitive nature, encourage our cold cognitive processes to              why it is to our benefit to obey the laws
e.g. hot cognition encourages me to favor my family and my friends, but there is a        that says I will get punished if I do this
so cold cognition comes in and I refrain from doing this
how people went from tribal society to civilization is one of the main themes in early                history
they were very                about this problem and as a society solved it with two general approaches
1. rule by       
               and Legalists
pushing institutional solutions
human nature is                         , selfish and tribal
but we can set up these new institutional incentive systems that will change the way people behave
rational calculation
cognitive control
depend on reward and punishment
2. rule by virtue
Confucianism and             
pushing a                      model
emotions, virtues
allows for                        reactions
depends on                          values
what it means to live in civilization is to acquire new virtues, a virtue being a socially desirable disposition
a spontaneous way to act, if you have the virtue of honesty, you are not honest based on a rule, but out of your nature, spontaneously
a hot cognitive reaction, a             
in practice, all successful societies seem to involve a mix of both
virtue-based Confucian societies also have many rules, punishment-reward mechanisms
becomes the                    model in China
in the        Dynasty, Confucianism gets established as the state religion
institution-based societies still value virtues such as honesty, loyalty, and courage
e.g. the Qin dynasty's model                China, but was seen by the Han Dynasty as harsh and inhuman
but the Han Dynasty inherited many of the                            structure from the Chin Dynasty
modern                        are institution-based societies ruled by law
we still value virtues but they play a second role to laws
cognition and ethics
ethical                   
when you think about ethics
ethical                 
when you act ethically or unethically
ethical                   
when ethics is taught
three models of ethics
1.                     
rule-based ethics
you have             , typically in the form of maxims
ethical reasoning and behavior involves knowing those             , how to rank them, e.g. is it ok to lie if you can prevent a murder, etc.
concerned with ethical dilemmas
cold-system based
associated most prominently with Immanuel         
2.                             
maximize desirable outcomes
e.g. happiness or pleasure
who it is for: individual,               , etc.
consequentialism
like another cold-system, all about reasoning and involves analysis:
course of action #1 results in this payoff
course of action #1 results in that payoff
you do the math and figure out the better one
John Stuart         
as an ethical being, you are a "rational calculator of               "
once you cognitively decide what the best payoff strategy is, you have to force this on your               
3.              ethics
a hot cognitive model
ethics is about cultivating desirable                          in the self
as an ethical teacher, you are trying to get people to have "new hot reactions" to the world, i.e. instead of cold cognitive thought of how to act, they act spontaneously and virtuously
training                     , emotion and desires
                   is the prominent example
also early Confucians and Daoists
it relies on the power of hot cognition, but not the hot cognition we're          with

Vocabulary:

tamp, v. to drive in or pack down by frequent gentle strokes  "So cold cognition says, ok, I'll stop doing that, and I tamp down my hot cognition and act in a different way guided by conscious incentives taat have been set up by the institutional structure around me."
deontology, n. the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules  "Kant's theory is an example of a deontological or duty-based ethics: it judges morality by examining the nature of actions and the will of agents rather than goals achieved. Kant's position can be contrasted with that of John Stuart Mill's utilitarianism, in which, as an ethical being, you are a "rational calculator of payoffs"."

Spelling Corrections:

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The Definition of Religion
Mind/Body Dualism and Cognitive Control
Deontology, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Ethics
Wu-Wei, Dao, Tien and De
The Shang Dynasty (1554-1045 BC)
The Beginnings of Written Chinese History
Eastern Holistic Thinking and the Paradox of Virtue
The Golden Age of the Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE)
Philosophical and Conceptual Innovations in Zhou Thought
Confucius and the Analects
Confucius: I Transmit, I Do Not Innovate
Confucius' Use of Ritual as a Tool
Confucius' View on Learning vs. The Enlightenment
Confucius and Holistic Education
Confucius and the Art of Self-Cultivation
At Home in Virtue
Non-Coercive Comportment, Virtue, and Charisma of the Zhou
The Transition to Becoming Sincere
The Primitivists in the Analects
Laozi and the Daodejing
Laozi: Stop the Journey and Return Home
Laozi and The Desires of the Eye
Laozi: He Who Speaks Does Not Know
The Concept of Reversion
Laozi on Shutting Down the Prefrontal Cortex
The Guodian Laozi
Mozi and Materialist State Consequentialism
Mozi's Idea of Ideological Unity
Mozi's Doctrine of Impartial Caring
Mozi's Anti-Confucian Chapters
Mozi's Religious Fundamentalism and Organized Activism
The Language Crisis in the Warring States Period