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Notes on video lecture:
The Bill of Rights
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
changed, Mason, actors, some, degree, recommendation, states, 1788, power, attainder, unfair, Federalists, federal, tyrant, amendments, 10, listed, bursts, twelve, limited, missing, Reconstruction, today, worried, modern, Progressive, process, Madison, homesick, branches, Englishmen, facto, mundane, dangerous
Constitution was written in 1787 and ratified in         
but that Constitution, the Founders constitution, isn't the one we live under           
in part because of Supreme Court decisions on                     
how judges should apply old constitutional provisions to              circumstances is a difficult question
the words of the Constitution are                through amendments
our history with amendments has not been one of slow and steady change, but              of activity, such as these three:
1. The Bill of Rights
the first      amendments
2. The                              Amendments
followed the Civil War
3. The                        Era Amendments
Bill of Rights
the original Constitution was                what we often think about most when we think of the Constitution: individual rights
the original constitution has          protections for individuals
government cannot create ex post            laws
no bills of                   
declaring someone guilty of a crime while denying that person due                of law
but these are               
lack of protections for individual was not because people were not concerned about them
the Americans had fought a war arguing that their rights as                      had been taken away
the reason the Constitutional Convention didn't add a set of individual rights to the original Constitution is a bit               
they were getting                 
they ran out of time
every state already had a bill of rights to some             
two groups
George Washington
Alexander Hamilton
a strong national government that would have            over the states
will protect us from other countries but also from the small-mindedness of state governments
make sure that states don't do anything              to individuals
Thomas Jefferson
Patrick Henry
argued that we needed a Bill of Rights
Federalists responded that government only had limited powers anyway and couldn't invade individual rights
other argued that a Bill of Rights would be                   
the government could claim that individuals had no rights other than the ones             
ratifying the Constitution
5 states ratified
Massachusetts ratified with the                              that a Bill of Rights be added
4 of next 5 states do the same
so when Constitution does get ratified, the Bill of Rights is one of the first things congress does
draft a list of amendments
send them out to the states
there were             
two didn't make it
the ten that did are now what we call the Bill of Rights
to understand the Bill of Rights, you can ask three questions:
1. what were the drafters                about?
worried about the federal government
worried it would become a              like King George did
2. how did they try to protect us?
gave government limited powers and divided these powers among the                  of government
gave individuals certain rights, this is what the Bill of Rights does
protects certain activities against interference from certain             , usually the government
also protected state power
the important thing to remember about the Bill of Rights is that is applies only to the                government
the drafters were not worried about what the states would do to their own citizens
in their minds, states were good and well-meaning
3. how has their solution worked out hundreds of years later?
the Framers thought we would have              standing up against the federal government, but instead we have seen individuals stand up against states

Ideas and Concepts:

On the succinct writing style of the Bill of Rights, via tonight's Key Constitutional Concepts and Supreme Court Cases class: "The Bill of Rights was written in very crisp and compact language so that ordinary people could actually memorize it, the same way that people at that time memorized Scripture passages or memorized a favorite song. It was written to get into your head. It was purposely not written in legalese, precisely because it's a text from the people, for the people, addressed to the people."
Why We Needed a Constitution
Creating the Constitution
Structural, Backward-Looking, and Forward-Looking Provisions
Article I: The Legislative Branch
Article II: The Executive Branch
Article III: The Judicial Branch
The Bill of Rights
The Progressive Amendments: 16, 17, 18, and 19
Freedom of Speech
The Supreme Court and the Free Exercise of Religion Clause
The Establishment Clause
The Fourth Amendment: Protection from Unreasonable Search and Seizure
The Fifth Amendment and the Miranda Warning
The Sixth Amendment