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Notes on video lecture:
Cities in the Industrial Revolution
Notes taken by Edward Tanguay on October 13, 2014 (go to class or lectures)
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
horse, sewers, cities, elevator, Glasgow, Erie, suburbs, Loop, upstream, 1700s, rise, automobiles, livestock, Shirtwaist, smoke, trading, culture, metropolis, crowded, 1750, widened, waterfall, capitalism, 146, rails, sea, completely, modern, computer, mines, 250, hours, 1760, Omaha, water, factories, slow, villages, Manchester, 20th, streets
while every city before the Industrial Revolution had a different location and               , pre-industrial cities also had a lot in common
if a resident of 5th century BC Athens were transported to London in         , the difference would have been amazing but still understandable
sailing boats
horse drawn carts
buildings only a few stories high
but if you transport the same person from 5th century BC Athens to any modern city in the          century, his experience of taxis, asphalt, street lights, noise, cars, trains, planes, and skyscrapers would be bewildering
the way we live in cities in our              age has little similarity to how humans have lived in towns and cities for the past 3000 years.
big changes in cities
began in the           
because of the new international                patterns that had been developing since the Middle Ages
the deep transformational changes in cities over the last        years is tightly aligned with the development of                      and the industrial revolution
in the 17th and 18th centuries, population growth began to          rapidly in Europe
Gdansk
one of the first international trading cities
London
at one point the world's leading trade                     
increase in wealth for some
               living conditions for many
18th century cities
London
Portsmouth
crowded, trading metropolises
some the size of modern cities
         London 740,000
had none of the amenities which we take for granted
police
fire departments
running water
            
turn of 19th century
urbane, fashionable houses in West end of London
because of wealth created by trade
still cows and                    very close
first industrial buildings
                   for making cloths
driven by            power
not located in the              at all
almost always                  from major cities which were built around ports
e.g. New Lanark, Scotland, upstream from               
used                    to turn a water wheel
ancient technology
canals
in the past had connected bodies of water
in the industrial age, connected factory towns directly to the open        or to other port towns
this system worked until replaced by railroads
the          Canal connected the Hudson River to the Great Lakes and the developing West
major reason why New York pulled ahead of Boston and Philadelphia as a major transportation hub
locks
canals changed elevation by using locks
Erie Canal in Lockport
steam engine
first were used to pump water out of           
1807 Robert Fulton put a steam powered boat The Clermont on the Hudson
1825 George Stevenson was first to put a steam engine on           , Stockton and Darlington
1830 first passenger line from Liverpool to                     
railroad technology in the 19th century was adopted as quickly as                  technology in our own time
between 1830 and 1860 railroad networks were completed in most European countries and in the United States
France was relatively         
by the 1850s, trains could run at 60 to 70 miles per hour
railroads                      changed cities along the line
trips that took days could now be completed in           
               the trading area of cities
intensified development in city centers around the train station
1869 Transcontinental Railroad
travel time across the country was reduced from six months to six days
cities along the railroad such as            and San Francisco
steam engine also allowed factories to move from places with water power to cities
where the customers were
more people began to move to cities in order to work in the factories
railroad led to intensification of development
trains, factories and            become prominent in the city
once you got off the train, you were back to the means of pre-industrial transportation: walking, riding a           , or riding in a horse-drawn conveyance
1911 Triangle                      Factory fire
deadliest industrial disaster of New York City
killed        garment workers, most immigrant women ages 16 to 23
became a call for reform
tall buildings
a characteristic of cities formed by the Industrial Revolution
made possible by:
the                 
mass production of steel
the ability to make large sheets of glass
accessibility from a larger geographical area by street cars and trains
first tall buildings
Lower Manhattan
Chicago within the         
typical development of American city, e.g. Kansas City
1840 before railroad came, it was one of a cluster of small                 , others included:
Independence
Westport
gateway to Sante Fe trail
wagon trains set off here for the west
1869 after arrival of railroads
               laid out
quick development
1880s streetcars led to                away from the industrial pollution of the city's center
1906 5-story buildings, electric streetcars, some early                       

People:

Augustus Pugin (1812-1852)
English architect remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style, responsible for the interior design of the Palace of Westminster
  • after his death, his ideas were carried on by two young architects who admired him and had attended his funeral, W. E. Nesfield and Norman Shaw
  • the art critic John Ruskin "outlived and out-talked him by half a century, if Ruskin had never lived, Pugin would never have been forgotten"
Gustave Doré (1832-1883)
French artist, printmaker, illustrator and sculptor who depicted scenes from books by Rabelais, Balzac, Milton, Don Quixote, Dante, Lord Byron, for Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven" and for an illustrated English Bible
  • at age five he had been a prodigy troublemaker, playing pranks that were mature beyond his years
  • at age twelve he began engraving in cement, but eventually worked primarily with wood engraving

Ideas and Concepts:

On our unique modern city living, via this evening's Designing Cities class: "While every city before the industrial revolution had a different location and culture, every per-industrial city had very much in common with almost every other per-industrial city. If a resident of 5th century BC Athens were transported to 1750 London, the difference for him would have been amazing but still understandable:sailing boats, horse drawn carts, and buildings only a few stories high. But if you were to transport that same person just 250 years later to any modern city in the 21th century, his experience of taxis, asphalt, street lights, noise, cars, trains, trams, planes, 24-hour lights, neon, smart phones with Google street maps and street view, and towering skyscrapers would be bewildering. The way we live in cities today has very little to do with how humans have lived in towns and cities throughout human history."
On historical urban reality, via this morning's Designing Cities class: "You have to remember that as 18th century cities such as London became trading metropolises, some even the size of modern cities (1760 London population was 740,000), these cities did not have even the basic modern amenities which we take for granted in our cities today such as police, fire departments, running water, or sewers. You have to imagine these places as extremely crowded, chaotic, and unhealthy places to live."
Via this morning's Designing Cities class: "The irony of American and European cities throughout the 19th century was that although railroads completely connected major cities and towns, and you could travel between these places at speeds up to 100 km/h, as soon as you got off the train, you were back to the means of pre-industrial transportation:walking, riding a horse, or riding in a horse-drawn conveyance."
Cities before the Industrial Revolution
Cities in the Industrial Revolution
19th Century Park and Boulevard Plans: From Paris to Kansas City
Megacities and Megaregions