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Notes on video lecture:
Cities before the Industrial Revolution
Notes taken by Edward Tanguay on September 19, 2014 (go to class or lectures)
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
1681, Chang, Beijing, wats, relief, capital, older, Savannah, prototype, Sixtus, wall, Haussmann, important, 1666, square, property, cloister, Adelaide, deserted, 2000, fortifications, campfire, four, axis, grid, Tang, residential, Montpazier, Greeks, square, central, green, monuments, Enfant, Americas, river, Xian, urban, New, newer, gridiron, meeting, temples, prominent, beautiful, livable
cities in the per-industrial revolution
in            cities, you can see signs of cities of hundreds of years ago just by walking around
but even in            cities, you can see aspects which have these roots
in the earliest settlements
people simply gathered around the                 
house emerged around it
settlements developed in this informal process
at least 3000 years ago, people began to deliberately design settlements
common characteristics arose
1. the         
for defense
critical element in planning cities for over          years
also moats
2. the         
a logical and easy way to subdivide                 
500 BC gridiron created by              500 BC
15th century: most common layout of cities when the Europeans conquered the                 
e.g. Lima, Peru
3. the         
in most cities throughout history, the design of the city was design around the fact that some people were more                    than others
e.g. Beijing, a central axis that only the emperor was permitted to walk along
e.g. Renaissance Rome, Pope              the V uses the Axis (Strada del Corso) as a way to united the residue of monuments that had been left throughout history
4. the city             
in Europe, public squares were like living rooms of cities, places for important events such as market places
England, city squares were often green spaces
offered              from the dense city
this idea was carried over into the        World in the design of cities
5. the                 
places for worship and home of religious deities
monasteries, house of worship, temples, shrines
often give                    locations in cities
Bangkok's many          were the landmarks that defined the city and do to this day
churches define the skylines of early American cities
sacred spaces were often accompanied by schools and public                places
how these five elements were incorporated in cities from antiquity to the 19th century
          -An
800 AD, the largest and most important city in the world was Chang-An, in                China, located along the Silk Road
populate over 1,000,000
seat of the          Dynasty
legations from all the important countries of the world
today known as          [ZHEE-ahn]
planning of Chang-An began much earlier, many of walls and temples build in 100 BC
Tang Dynasty made it its               
became the                    for all Chinese cities, including the prototype for Beijing
wall of Chang-An
5KM by 6KM
had 11 gates
central axes that led to the emperor's palace
city had a grid plan
two markets near the gates of the city
many                scattered throughout the city, almost one on every block
modern day Xian occupies only about one-third of the original city of Chang-An
remains want of the few walled cities in the world with gates in their original locations
the diversity of blocks within the grid is maintained
               shows the unmistakable elements of Chang-An
12th and 13th centuries in Europe
much money spent on                             
bastides
                    , France is one of the best preserved bastide towns
market square is at the precise center
town is still largely occupied
16th century Rome
real revolution of city design began here
after the fall of the Empire, Rome fell had fallen into ruins and was almost                 
because of the ambition of the Popes and the money being collected from all over Europe, Pope Sixtus V provide the impetus
laid new street connecting major                   
set the stage for the creation of Peter's Square, one of the greatest achievements in city design in history and the icon of Baroque city planning
         the Great Fire of London
sometimes disaster provides the impetus for city design
unfortunately it was rebuilt pretty much the way it was build before
but the redesigning process had an impact on city planning in the New World
         William Penn, Philadelphia
given large land grant by the King
Thomas Holme proposed a                  plan running from the Delaware River to the Schuylkill river
plots had enough room for people to keep animals within the city
was thought of as a "Greene Country Towne"
slow to develop
20 years after its founding, only a few blocks had been occupied
took two centuries to fill out the city from river to           
Philadelphia's          squares remain the public centers of its neighborhoods
1733                 , Georgia
Charles Oglethorpe
a plan where virtually every house faced a             
remains today one of the most                cities in the country
1823                 , Australia
Colonel William Light
similar to Philadelphia
surrounded it by a            belt
1791 Washington
the national capital that replaced Philadelphia
laid out by Charles L'            
grid-iron plan
blocks that varied whether they were commercial areas or                        blocks
later recast as the city                    movement in America
cities are often modified throughout history
Rome by Sextus V
Paris by Baron                   
American cities through            renewal in the 1970s and 1980s

Vocabulary:

bastide, n. a new town built in medieval Languedoc, Gascony and Aquitaine during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, designed in a grid plan  "Montpazier, France is one of the best preserved bastide towns."
wat, n. a Buddhist temple in Thailand or Cambodia  "Bangkok's many wats were the landmarks that defined the city and do to this day."

People:

Pope Sixtus V (1521-1590)
Pope for only five years from 1585 to his death in 1590, he spent immense sums on public works transforming the city of Rome and its surroundings
  • brought water to the waterless hills in the Acqua Felice, feeding twenty-seven new fountains
  • laid out new arteries in Rome, which connected the great basilicas
  • set his engineer-architect Domenico Fontana to replan the Colosseum as a silk-spinning factory housing its workers
  • the completion of the dome of St. Peter's
  • the loggia of Sixtus in the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano
  • the erection of four obelisks, including that in Saint Peter's Square
  • the opening of six streets
  • the restoration of the aqueduct of Septimius Severus
  • the integration of the Leonine City in Rome as XIV rione (Borgo)
  • he sweetened the city air by financing the reclamation of the Pontine Marshes, reclaiming 38 square kilometers and opened them to agriculture and manufacture

Spelling Corrections:

monestariesmonasteries
dietiesdeities

Ideas and Concepts:

Impressive city design of the day, via this evening's Designing Cities class: "Founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely settled British province, Adelaide, Australia was designed by Colonel William Light as a city with in a grid layout inter-spaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parklands."
Cities before the Industrial Revolution
Cities in the Industrial Revolution
19th Century Park and Boulevard Plans: From Paris to Kansas City
Megacities and Megaregions