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C O U R S E 
Designing Cities
Gary Hack, University of Pennsylvania
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Cities before the Industrial Revolution
Notes taken on September 19, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
cities in the per-industrial revolution
in older cities, you can see signs of cities of hundreds of years ago just by walking around
but even in newer cities, you can see aspects which have these roots
in the earliest settlements
people simply gathered around the campfire
house emerged around it
settlements developed in this informal process
at least 3000 years ago, people began to deliberately design settlements
common characteristics arose
1. the wall
for defense
critical element in planning cities for over 2000 years
also moats
2. the grid
a logical and easy way to subdivide property
500 BC gridiron created by Greeks 500 BC
15th century: most common layout of cities when the Europeans conquered the Americas
e.g. Lima, Peru
3. the axis
in most cities throughout history, the design of the city was design around the fact that some people were more important than others
e.g. Beijing, a central axis that only the emperor was permitted to walk along
e.g. Renaissance Rome, Pope Sixtus the V uses the Axis (Strada del Corso) as a way to united the residue of monuments that had been left throughout history
4. the city square
in Europe, public squares were like living rooms of cities, places for important events such as market places
England, city squares were often green spaces
offered relief from the dense city
this idea was carried over into the New World in the design of cities
5. the cloister
places for worship and home of religious deities
monasteries, house of worship, temples, shrines
often give prominent locations in cities
Bangkok's many wats were the landmarks that defined the city and do to this day
churches define the skylines of early American cities
sacred spaces were often accompanied by schools and public meeting places
how these five elements were incorporated in cities from antiquity to the 19th century
800 AD, the largest and most important city in the world was Chang-An, in central China, located along the Silk Road
populate over 1,000,000
seat of the Tang Dynasty
legations from all the important countries of the world
today known as Xian [ZHEE-ahn]
planning of Chang-An began much earlier, many of walls and temples build in 100 BC
Tang Dynasty made it its capital
became the prototype for all Chinese cities, including the prototype for Beijing
wall of Chang-An
5KM by 6KM
had 11 gates
central axes that led to the emperor's palace
city had a grid plan
two markets near the gates of the city
many temples scattered throughout the city, almost one on every block
modern day Xian occupies only about one-third of the original city of Chang-An
remains want of the few walled cities in the world with gates in their original locations
the diversity of blocks within the grid is maintained
Beijing shows the unmistakable elements of Chang-An
12th and 13th centuries in Europe
much money spent on fortifications
Montpazier, France is one of the best preserved bastide towns
market square is at the precise center
town is still largely occupied
16th century Rome
real revolution of city design began here
after the fall of the Empire, Rome fell had fallen into ruins and was almost deserted
because of the ambition of the Popes and the money being collected from all over Europe, Pope Sixtus V provide the impetus
laid new street connecting major monuments
set the stage for the creation of Peter's Square, one of the greatest achievements in city design in history and the icon of Baroque city planning
1666 the Great Fire of London
sometimes disaster provides the impetus for city design
unfortunately it was rebuilt pretty much the way it was build before
but the redesigning process had an impact on city planning in the New World
1681 William Penn, Philadelphia
given large land grant by the King
Thomas Holme proposed a gridiron plan running from the Delaware River to the Schuylkill river
plots had enough room for people to keep animals within the city
was thought of as a "Greene Country Towne"
slow to develop
20 years after its founding, only a few blocks had been occupied
took two centuries to fill out the city from river to river
Philadelphia's four squares remain the public centers of its neighborhoods
1733 Savannah, Georgia
Charles Oglethorpe
a plan where virtually every house faced a square
remains today one of the most livable cities in the country
1823 Adelaide, Australia
Colonel William Light
similar to Philadelphia
surrounded it by a green belt
1791 Washington
the national capital that replaced Philadelphia
laid out by Charles L'Enfant
grid-iron plan
blocks that varied whether they were commercial areas or residential blocks
later recast as the city beautiful movement in America
cities are often modified throughout history
Rome by Sextus V
Paris by Baron Haussmann
American cities through urban renewal in the 1970s and 1980s