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Notes on video lecture:
Dinosaur Skeletons
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
probability, skeletons, soles, skulls, places, jellyfish, pelvis, same, learning, caudal, fingernails, backbone, openings, vertebrates, long, claws, many, purposes, insects, Femur, coyotes, 300
most of what we know about dinosaurs comes from their                   
in order to understand dinosaurs, we need to understand how skeletons are put together
luckily we have a great                  resource: our own skeletons
dinosaurs and humans have basically the          skeletons
they have the same bones in the same             
the bones may be used for different                  and therefore shaped in different ways but they are the same bones
because dinosaurs and humans belong to a group of animals called                        and we all have a common ancestor
vertebrate
refers to the presence of vertebrae, i.e. a                 
all vertebrates have backbones and             
counter examples are                that have exoskeletons and                    which have no skeletons at all
the basic form of the vertebrate skeleton evolved over        million years ago
skulls
looking at the various skull shapes of e.g. a wolf, a mountain lion, and a sea lion suggest different uses and purposes for these shapes
skulls are not one bone but         
orbits
openings for the eyes
nares
openings for the nose
fenestrae
other openings in the skull
               have only one fenestrate behind the orbit and no fenestrate in front of the orbit
a tyrannosaurus skull has two holes behind the orbit, and one in front of the orbit
brain case
where the brain is housed
                 for nerves
antorbital fenestra
behind the naris
backbone
each vertebrae has a disc-like centrum
tails are composed entirely of vertebrae
neck
cervical
back
dorsal
hip
sacral
dinosaurs had ribs all the way to their             
tail
            
shoulder socket
scapula
hip socket
acetabulum
adaptations and shapes of limbs
for walking, running, flying, jumping or swimming
looking at the shape of the limbs of dinosaurs will help you determine the                        that that dinosaur ran, walked, jump, flew or swam
sharp            suggest being a predator
         legs suggest running fast
arm bones in both humans and dinosaurs
Humerus
Ulna / Radius
differences
dinosaur had claws
humans have                       
leg bones
all basically the same in vertebrates
          
Tibia/Fibula
dinosaurs generally had five toes
all dinosaurs walked on their toes and the            of their feet were elevated off the ground
How are Dinosaurs Different than Other Animals?
Dinosaur Skeletons
Saurischians: Sauropods, Theropods, and Prosauropods
Ornithischians
Determining Dinosaur Appearance