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Notes on video lecture:
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
legs, short, Tyrannosaurus, club, mitten, digest, eyes, backwards, saurischians, jaw, premaxilla, duck, convergence, dome, bone, blocky, birds, Brontosaurus, banks, large, osteoderm, spikes, armored, birds, beak, Triceratops, boss, herbivores
two key traits that distinguish ornithischians and                         
1. ornithischians have a hip with a pubic bone which points                   
sometimes it has a projection that points forward, but they are usually           
resembles those of           
this is an evolutionary                       
birds belong among saurischian dinosaurs
plants are hard to             
the backward-pointing public bone gave the ornithischians room for a            digestive track
2. a special bone in the lower       
predentary bone
no other animals have one
the predentary [pree-DEN-taree] is an extra bone in the front of the lower jaw, which extends the dentary (the main lower jaw bone), and coincides with the                      in the upper jaw
together they form a         -like apparatus used to clip off plant material
ornithischians were                     
gave ornithischians tool for slicing off plant stems
five main lineages
1. Hadrosaurs
Ornithopods started out as bipeds but Hadrosaurs probably walked on all four legs most of the time
had hand encased in a              of skin
crests on top of heads and flat heads
spikey thumb
2. Ceratopsia
four-legged dinosaurs
relatively short tails
an extreme form of skull bones coming out the back of the head
some had horns over their eyes
unlike duck-billed dinosaurs, had very narrow skulls
more like a parrot's beak
teeth had elaborated            of teeth for sheering and crushing plant material
older forms don't have so many frills and horns as newer forms, but they still have a beak
Albert and Alaska
bony mass called a         
3. Pachycephalosauria
intelligent-looking because they have high-domed skulls
unfortunately, brain was not very large
most of the skull was solid         
heads may have been used as battering rams
don't have long         , so probably not that fast
skeleton is frail so not many exist
1920 a skeleton of Pachycephalosauria was found
4. Stegosauria
walked on all four legs
front legs shorter
skull small compared to rest of body
teeth were leaf-shaped and had narrow beak
plates or              along the back
bone that forms in the skin:                   
earlier forms had spikes
later forms had plates
but even later forms had spikes at end of tail
5. Ankylosauria
had osteoderms
walked on four legs
skulls were             
teeth were small
on some, the end of the tail had a bone which was used as a kind of         
two main branches of the dinosaur family tree
1. Saurischian Hips ("lizard hip dinosaur")
a. Sauropods ("long neck dinosaurs")
b. Theropods
2. Ornithischia Hips
a. Hadrosaurs
b. Ceratopsians
c. Pachycephalosauria
d. Stegosauria
e. Ankylosauria
armored dinosaurs
How are Dinosaurs Different than Other Animals?
Dinosaur Skeletons
Saurischians: Sauropods, Theropods, and Prosauropods
Determining Dinosaur Appearance