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Notes on video lecture:
Saurischians: Sauropods, Theropods, and Prosauropods
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
small, sparrow, pointed, pubis, peg, weight, ilium, Jurassic, ischium, Brontosaurus, grasping, ten, three, beaks, muscle, back, columns, hip, smaller, plant, Dromaeosaurus, tails, four, long, diverse, three, skeletons, pubis, pelvis
we can use features of                    to divide dinosaurs into smaller and smaller groups
two main shapes of the pelvis
Ornithischia ("bird        dinosaur")
Stegosaurus (155-150 Ma,                 )
Saurischia ("lizard hip dinosaur")
1. Sauropods ("         neck dinosaurs")
e.g. Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and                         
largest land animals that ever lived
walked on          legs
limb bones were thick and looked like               
vertebrae are complex and many have cavities inside for air sacks
skulls            compared to the rest of their body
teeth simple and       -like
2. Theropods
carnivores, some omnivores and herbivores
some small species like the                            (76-74 Ma, Cretaceous)
e.g. Daspletosaurus (77-74 Ma, Cretaceous)
one of the Tyrannosaurids
had typical Saurischian hip arrangement
designed to support the great              of the Tyrannosaur
all walked on hind legs
carnivores had sharply                teeth
some lost their teeth and had toothless           
generally           -clawed
some, like Tyrannosaurus Rex
only two fingers
only one claw
over eyes
over nose
also birds
3. Prosauropods
an early group of           -eating dinosaurs
smaller than the sauropods
but this is relative, some were over        meters in length
weighed over            tons
many had                  hands
had the ability to stand and walk only on their          feet
all dinosaurs have three bones that make up their             
upper bone
muscle attachments on front go to front of leg
muscle attachments on back go to the back of the leg
               bone than ilium
goes down and back
useful in orientate muscle in particular directions
goes down and forward
distinctive in Tyrannosaurs as it has a large boot on the bottom
for              attachment
support weight of animal when its squatting on the ground
very different in Ornithischian dinosaurs
the Ornithischian dinosaurs are not moving in the same kind of way
the            is one of the easiest ways to tell an Ornithischian from a Saurischian dinosaur


integument, n. [in-TEG-yoo-ment] the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind. It derives from integumentum, Latin for "covering"  "The mononykus is usually reconstructed with a covering of feathers. Indeed, in the fossil of its relative Shuvuuia feather traces were discovered, suggesting that Alvarezsauridae were among the theropod lineages with feathery or downy integument."

Ideas and Concepts:

On the Bone Wars or Great Dinosaur Rush via this morning's Dinosaur Paleobiology class: "The Bone Wars, also known as the Great Dinosaur Rush, refers to a period of intense fossil speculation and discovery during the late 19th century of American history, marked by a heated rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope (of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia) and Othniel Charles Marsh (of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale). Each of the two paleontologists used underhanded methods to try to out-compete the other in the field, resorting to bribery, theft, and destruction of bones. Each scientist also attacked the other in scientific publications, seeking to ruin his credibility and have his funding cut off. Their search for fossils led them west to rich bone beds in Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming. From 1877 to 1892, both paleontologists used their wealth and influence to finance their own expeditions and to procure services and dinosaur bones from fossil hunters. By the end of the Bone Wars, both men had exhausted their funds in the pursuit of paleontological supremacy. Cope and Marsh were financially and socially ruined by their attempts to disgrace each other, but their contributions to science and the field of paleontology were massive, and provided substantial material for further work—both scientists left behind many unopened boxes of fossils after their deaths. The efforts of the two men led to over 142 new species of dinosaurs being discovered and described, though today only 32 are valid. The products of the Bone Wars resulted in an increase in knowledge of prehistoric life, and sparked the public's interest in dinosaurs, leading to continued fossil excavation in North America in the decades to follow."
The Mononykus, dinosaur of the day via this morning's Dinosaur Paleobiology class: "Therapod dinosaurs generally had three claws, but some, such as the Tyrannosaurus Rex, had only two claws, and some really weird Therapod dinosaurs such as the Mononykus had only one well-developed claw protruding from the end of each of its upper appendages. It had a small skull, and its teeth were small and pointed, suggesting that it ate insects and small animals, such as lizards and mammals, perhaps using its highly specialized arms to break open termite mounds like modern anteaters. It also had fused wrist bones similar to those of birds. Its large eyes might have allowed Mononykus to hunt by night, when it was cooler and there would have been fewer predators about. The Mononykus is sometimes reconstructed with feathers and sometimes with smooth skin, however, in a fossil find of its relative Shuvuuia, feather traces were discovered, suggesting that their common subgroup Alvarezsauridae were among the theropod lineages with feathery or downy integument."
How are Dinosaurs Different than Other Animals?
Dinosaur Skeletons
Saurischians: Sauropods, Theropods, and Prosauropods
Determining Dinosaur Appearance