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Notes on video lecture:
19th Century Ottoman Empire Politics
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
minimal, ecclesiastical, girls, laws, ineffective, astronomy, Turkish, Capitulations, Vizier, foreigners, endowments, potentates, groups, taxation, France, Sharia
19th century Middle East politics
governments were diverse and               
governments recognized the existence of              and not individuals
each group was governed in different ways and by different         
Muslims followed the             
Christians and Jews followed their                              or legal frameworks
tribesmen had their own modes of settling disputes
                     were granted special legal privileges
                           of the Ottoman Empire
contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly             
traders entering the Ottoman Empire were exempt from local prosecution, local                 , local conscription, and the searching of their domicile
government and taxation was minimal
services like law and education were not supplied by the central government
they were provided by the various communities
to outside observers, these characteristics gave the impression of an                        government in decline
but in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, the locus of power began to shift from individual groups to the Grand             , the chief minister of the Ottoman Empire
provinces were often controlled by local                     
e.g. Egypt
in Arab cities, notable families, some Arab, some               , assume positions of considerable wealth and power
because of the importance of religion, families sent their children to get a religious education
waqf (plural awqaf), religious                     , sources of wealth and political control
boys but not            were schooled in the traditional schools, schooled in:
religious jurisprudence
some secular subjects such as mathematics and                   


waqf, n. an inalienable religious endowment in Islamic law, typically donating a building or plot of land or even cash for Muslim religious or charitable purposes  "A waqf was used to keep money or property together in private hands; a pooling of wealth to maintain private ownership. It is a pious and perpetual endowment that is free from tax."
The Middle East, its Origins, and the Modern Era
Napoleon in Egypt: The Beginning of the Middle Eastern Modern Age
The Popuation Mosaic of 19th Century Middle East
Middle East Economy in the 19th Century
19th Century Ottoman Empire Politics
The Ottoman Empire's Changing Balance of Power with Europe