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Notes on video lecture:
Napoleon in Egypt: The Beginning of the Middle Eastern Modern Age
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Vienna, supremacy, Moldova, Bulgarians, contemporary, radical, Croce, Suleiman, key, decentralization, Yemen, 350, simplistic, nationalism, Islamic, erosion, interrupted, Russians, 1798, Europe
it is customary in the writing of Middle East history to start the modern era with Napoleon invading Egypt in         
this issued in a long period of rapid and                change
but there is an assumption that the beginning Middle East history with Napoleon's invasion of Egypt
that the modern era was created through European influence and                    on an era that is in decline and stagnant
Benedetto           : history is always writing about                          history
all history is written from the point of view of the present and as the present changes all the time, with the changes of the present, we have a changing view of the past, and our ideas about the past and the way we write about the past, change all the time
thesis of decline
since mid-16th century, the Ottoman Empire was in a       -year linear decline
the empire did not expand after                 
the empire was in constant retreat in terms of territory ever since the first defeat at              in 1529
the empire weakened over the centuries in comparison to Northern and Western             
but far less in comparison to Southern Europe and Russia
the second defeat at Vienna in 1683 ushered in a second wave of territorial contraction
however, some defeats dealt to the                  in 1711 in               
Middle East as stagnant society
the "sick man of Europe"
however, continued to enjoy unquestioned                legitimacy
even when rebellions brought down the ruling Sultan, the legitimacy of the empire remained intact
this remained true until the rise of ideas of                        in the last 19th and early 20th centuries
resurrected only by Western enlightenment
difficulties faced by the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century
territorial losses as exemplified by the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt
Nationalist uprisings in the Balkans
e.g. the Greeks, the Serbs, the                      who gradually throughout the 19th century broke away from the Ottoman Empire
Western advance and advantage
progress of science and technology was clearly superior than that in the Ottoman Empire
but in 1878, the Ottoman Empire was still large, from            to Libya to Turkey
many rebellions were a sign of weakness
Ottoman Empire in the 17th century
rising social classes
some argue this was an indication of a decline of the empire
some argue that this was not a sign of decline
to say that Napoleon is the beginning of the Modern Era in the Middle East is too                     
the European input added great momentum to a process that had already begun
some even say that Napoleon                        a local process of modernization
no one has offered an alternative periodization
the way to express the Middle East modern era now is:
the Napoleonic phase was a        to a new period of rapid change, but one that added a quantum leap forward to an already ongoing process
the colonial interaction, with all its obvious negatives, created an unprecedented measure of rapid change in economics, politics, and in the sphere of ideas and the                of tradition
"ideas are more dangerous than occupation since ideas will erode beliefs and traditions, while occupation will come and go"


Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)
Italian philosopher who wrote on history writing and aesthetics
  • originally supported Mussolini in 1922 but by 1925 created the Manifesto of the AntiFascist Intellectuals
  • history should be written by philosophers, history is "philosophy in motion", there is no cosmic design or ultimate plan in history, and that science of history is a farce
Suleiman the Magnificent (1494-1566)
The tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1520-1566) whose conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529
  • under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf
  • after him, the Ottoman Empire was in a linear state of decline

Spelling Corrections:

The Middle East, its Origins, and the Modern Era
Napoleon in Egypt: The Beginning of the Middle Eastern Modern Age
The Popuation Mosaic of 19th Century Middle East
Middle East Economy in the 19th Century
19th Century Ottoman Empire Politics
The Ottoman Empire's Changing Balance of Power with Europe