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Notes on video lecture:
The Popuation Mosaic of 19th Century Middle East
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
uniform, Christians, religious, Maronite, individuals, 75%, Alawis, Prophet, Ottoman, Druze, Jizyah, Ali, peasantry, secular, mosaic, Nationalism, Sufism, 7th, centralized, Millet
groups as the components of societies rather than individuals
Malcom Yapp, 1923: "Middle Eastern society is composed of various groups whose relationship to each other is like that of pieces in a             . Government recognized the existence of these groups and dealt with them in different ways. There was no assumption that society was composed of                        who should be treated in a uniform fashion, rather different groups had different rights and interests and required to be governed in different ways."
different groups were based on:
extended family
people in the Middle East have always identified themselves first and foremost by their religious association
19th century: Ottoman Empire
great majority of Middle East population were Muslim
"compact minorities"
minorities located in one particular territory
                 Christians in Mount Lebanon
             in northwestern Syria
the            in Jabal Druze in southern Syria
developed a strong, communal identity
tended to not support Arab                        as did, say, the Orthodox Christians who were more spread out
the subjects of the                Empire were organized into well-defined categories on the basis of their religion, each forming a millet
millets were allowed to rule themselves according to their own legal systems
in Muslim countries a tax which non-Muslims formerly paid that Muslims did not pay, only about one third actually paid the tax
non-Muslim communities also provided courts of law, schools of education
the Muslim world was not                either
Sunni-Shi'i division
goes back to the        century
not about religious dogma, but politics
result of political struggle who was to become the caliph after the               
the fourth caliph was supposed to be       , this became the Ali faction, or Shi'at Ali, or Shiites
the Alawis and the Druze are break-away sects from the Shiites
in the world, approximately        of Muslims are Sunni, 25% Shia (Iran, some Iraq, Bahrain, and Azerbaijan)
official establishment of Islam represented by Sheikh al-Islam
but also             
a branch of Islam, defined by adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; others contend that it is a perennial philosophy of existence that pre-dates religion, the expression of which flowered within Islam
government (military and bureaucracy)
not common for Jews or                      to be part of this outside translators
religious establishment
judges, interpreted religious law
outside government
merchants, peasants, tribesmen, townsmen, guildsmen, notables
tensions between land-owners and                   , this tension became important in revolutionary politics in 20th century
transformations during 19th century
government more                       
land-owners grew stronger
education system
European influence
educated,                class
weakened the status of the religious establishment
religion, however, reminded most important factor in peoples' lives


jizyah, n. in 19th century Islamic law, a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim subjects, a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjection to the state and its laws, in return, non-Muslim subjects were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to the Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and from the zakat tax levied upon Muslim citizens  "The jizya continued to be applied in Persia and many North African countries into the 19th century, but almost vanished in the 20th century. The tax is no longer imposed in the Islamic world. In the 21st century, it is widely regarded as being at odds with contemporary secular conceptions of citizen's civil rights and equality before the law."
The Middle East, its Origins, and the Modern Era
Napoleon in Egypt: The Beginning of the Middle Eastern Modern Age
The Popuation Mosaic of 19th Century Middle East
Middle East Economy in the 19th Century
19th Century Ottoman Empire Politics
The Ottoman Empire's Changing Balance of Power with Europe