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Notes on video lecture:
Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
invaders, order, societal, location, architecture, Sumer, production, help, sky, contact, land, passing, balance, cosmic, distinct, law, social, Egypt, attack, resources, differently, change, rivalry, skills, king, religion, ruler, Nile
kingship and law in ancient Mesopotamia and           
environment, climate, and geography affect                  order
things that humans can't             
society order is usually seen as the       
but when no laws in place, it's
the relationship between the            and the ruled
the relationship of the ruled in terms of each other
societies and leaders understand order                       
sources of social order and why it was forced the way it was
law codes
religious beliefs
civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt
Egypt civilization arrives after the            civilization in Mesopotamia
3500 BC
likely some                between them
but Egypt developed essentially as a                  civilization of its own
in both places, social order changed as the value of the          increased
the kind of kingship depended on                  of civilization
if people were                through who might pose a threat
if they were being left alone
if others could              without notice
volatile rivers
changing weather
people who move across this landscape
so for leaderships and                 
theme of               
who is going to contend
how might one win
the land of warring        gods
gods that can rival the king
gods represented in things like lightening, thunder and dust storms
generally threatened people as a whole but could also threaten a         
a king is supposed to lead
if regular warfare, these              are important
cities almost always had walls
a sign that there was always some threat afoot
growing population in cities
suggests increased              problems
the god-king must be a warrior and dominate
people have recourse
don't have a vote
but can ask gods for         
king is expected not to interfere with the established           , should respect gods
Epic of Gilgamesh
tells the story that the king is not supposed to abuse power and what the gods do when he does
also a relationship between religion and leadership
but a greater theme of               
the "land of divine harmony"
the goddess Ma'at was in charge of balancing conflicting              forces
Egypt was different than Mesopotamia
a more of less consistent environment with regular flooding of the         
consistent agricultural production as well as herding
had fewer                  given their geography
desert and sea around them
fewer people were going to be wandering through or have access to their                   
here God is truth, law, and justice, and if the Pharaoh doesn't keep this balance, then the are may be subject to problems
the Nile might become irregular
an invasion might occur
strength and                      might decrease
comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt
different geographies
different threats
different understandings therefore of order
unlike the Code of Hammurabi and other Mesopotamian law codes, there isn't a law code found in Egypt
although in Egypt a well ordered society was an absolute priority
there is a theme of balance in Egypt vs. the conflict and required dominance seen in Mesopotamia
a god-king
an implied recourse that the people should have to their gods if the king doesn't act correctly
land is in both cases is at the resources

Ideas and Concepts:

From the know-your-gods department, via tonight's Western Civilization class:

"In Ancient Egypt, as in Mesopotamia, there was also a relationship between religion and leadership. But in Egypt, there was a greater theme of balance. Ancient Egypt was known as the land of divine harmony, and it was the goddess Ma'at who was in charge of balancing the conflicting cosmic forces. She embodied the concept of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. She also regulated the stars, seasons, and it was Ma'at who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation.

Apart from this role in creation and continuously preventing the universe from returning to chaos, represented by her ideological counterpart Isfet, her primary role in Egyptian mythology dealt with the weighing of the heart that took place in the underworld. The feather she wears on her head was the measure that determined whether human souls, considered to reside in the heart, would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully. Pharaohs are often depicted with the emblems of Ma'at to emphasize their role in upholding the laws of the Creator."
Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
Ancient Egyptian War, Politics and Gods
The Egyptian Empire at its Greatest Extent