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Notes on video lecture:
Ancient Egyptian War, Politics and Gods
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
woman, mother, military, wives, unification, Narmer, Nefertiti, kingdom, life, pharaoh, Aten, building, battles, prisoner, 1345, Hatshepsut, walking, Egypt, Carter, crown, ordinary, tranquility, second, malaria, Berlin, transform, inbreeding, Children, dozens, procession, Nubians, beard, leg, modern, limestone, symbolic, sisters, Thutmose, depiction, royal, Ramses
the              Palette (31st century BC)
one of the oldest and most important artifacts from Ancient           
thought by some to depict the                        of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer, which is the founding of the unified Egyptian kingdom under one pharaoh
a stone palette
on the pallete, Narmer is wearing the crown of Upper Egypt about to hit a                  with a club
demonstrates the power of the pharaoh based on force
Narmer is larger than anyone else in the                   
on the back side
Narmer is wearing the crown of lower Egypt
in a                     
again, the pharaoh is larger than the other people in the depiction
Statue of              II at Luxor
a New Kingdom pharaoh
whereas Narmer was an Old Kingdom               
Ramses II (1279-1213 BCE)
over a thousand years after Pharaoh Narmer
led an enormous                  campaign
many temples and statues of himself across Egypt
half of the surviving temples in Egypt date from the time of Ramses
apparently had many              of children
a pharaoh was a kind of super-human, father-god figure
statues are much larger than         -size
represented in similar ways to Narmer
wearing a            which symbolizes upper and lower Egypt joined
has            which represents his status as pharaoh
pharaohs are often represented still, often seated, which suggests repose and                       
suggested that they don't need to move, that they are so powerful they can just sit
led many                  campaigns
south against the Nubians into modern-day Sudan
north against Hittites into modern-day Syria
we aren't sure how well he did in these               
the representations of them are all apparently commissioned by Ramses or other Egyptians to suggest what a great leader he was
clearly he did a good enough job to keep Egypt from being invaded by either the                or the Hittites
it may be that he just fought them to a standstill and everyone went home
a few cases where Pharaohs are represented differently
Queen                      (1507–1458 BC)
a member of the Egyptian royal family
the daughter of Thutmose I
the wife of his son                  II, so she married her brother
mother of Tutmose III
the way the family structure of the dynasty was set up was that it was based on                      within the family and incest
the belief that the pharaoh's family was so sacred that members could only marry members of that family
this makes good                  sense but very bad genetic sense
resulted in many difficulties for the pharaohs over time
Tutmose III became pharaoh at the age of one
she was made the regent to rule over the               
instead of simply be the queen mother who was in charge until her son grew up
she actually took over as pharaoh
this was something that was not usually done in Ancient Egypt by women in the            household
some statues of her represent her as a women, but other shoe her as a pharaoh where she is represented as being male
she was probably seen as taking on masculine identity
she becomes symbolically the father of the country
the Temple of Hatshepsut
survives to this day
one of the best surviving temples from that period
clearly she wasn't any kind of             -class pharaoh of that period
Bust of                   
the wife of Pharaoh Nakanatan
her bust was sculpted in          BCE
one of the most stunning works of art from ancient Egypt
Neues Museum in             
the Egyptians want it back
the Germans want to keep it
painted on                   
realistic and life-like
wrinkled on her eyelids and neck
represented as a human            not a god
wife of Akhenaten
the most unique and distinctive pharaoh of all
tried to completely                    Egyptian religion
the only real god as the sun-god         
made Aten into part of his name
Egyptians followed this for a little while
this fell apart pretty quickly after he died
one of the first cases of anywhere in the world of monotheism
most societies were polytheistic
before the Jewish religion and certainly before Christianity or Islam
had unorthodox religious beliefs but also allowed unorthodox styles of art
Bust of Nefertiti
much more realistic than other pharaonic art before and after Akhenaten
art work: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their                 
an                  family
a kind of an emotional, laid-back picture with a certain sentimentality about it
much more informal representation in Egyptian history
Akhenaten's son
Nefertiti was not his mother since Akhenaten had many           
we don't know who Tutankhamen's              was
but Tutankhamen's mother was one of Akhenaten's               
came to throne of age 9
lived to age 19
death was probably caused by broken       
probably also had               
throughout his life also had trouble                because he had birth defects being from an incestuous union in a family that had been incestuous before that
not known for anything he did as pharaoh
is known because his tomb was the only one found in the              age without anything having been taken from it
his tomb was opened in 1923 by Howard             
they found all of the regalia, all of the tomb artifacts, and all of the gold and jewels and treasures
this find is important because Tutankhamen didn't rule for very long


######################### (1507-1458 BC)
The fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled jointly with her son, Thutmose III, who had ascended to the throne as one-year-old child after the death of his father
  • instead of being satisfied as the queen mother who was in charge until her son grew up, Hatshepsut actually took over the office of pharaoh
  • while women had a relatively high status in ancient Egypt and enjoyed the legal right to own, inherit, or will property, a woman becoming pharaoh was rare
  • generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty
  • she was successful in warfare early in her reign, but generally is considered to be a pharaoh who inaugurated a long peaceful era
  • reestablished the trade networks
  • one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning hundreds of construction projects throughout both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, and of course her own temple, the Temple of Hatshepsut
  • "the first great woman in history of whom we are informed"

Ideas and Concepts:

The first historical document in the world via tonight's Western Civilization class:

"Dating from about the 31st century BC, the Narmer Palette contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found. It is thought to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer, which was the founding of the unified Egyptian kingdom under one pharaoh. The Palette, which has survived five millennia in almost perfect condition, was discovered by British archeologists in 1897–1898. The Narmer Palette is part of the permanent collection of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

While most of the images on the palette most probably depict the military conquests of Narmer in his successful attempt to unify Egypt into one, in the center on the second side can be seen two men holding ropes tied to the outstretched, intertwining necks of two serpopards confronting each other. The serpopard is a mythological creature and a cross between a serpent and a leopard, or lion. The circle formed by their curving necks is the central part of the Palette, which is the area where the cosmetics would have been ground."
Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
Ancient Egyptian War, Politics and Gods
The Egyptian Empire at its Greatest Extent