More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
Western Civilization: Ancient and Medieval Europe
Ian Moulton, Arizona State University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Ancient Egyptian War, Politics and Gods
Notes taken on April 27, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
the Narmer Palette (31st century BC)
one of the oldest and most important artifacts from Ancient Egypt
thought by some to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the king Narmer, which is the founding of the unified Egyptian kingdom under one pharaoh
a stone palette
on the pallete, Narmer is wearing the crown of Upper Egypt about to hit a prisoner with a club
demonstrates the power of the pharaoh based on force
Narmer is larger than anyone else in the depiction
on the back side
Narmer is wearing the crown of lower Egypt
in a procession
again, the pharaoh is larger than the other people in the depiction
Statue of Ramses II at Luxor
a New Kingdom pharaoh
whereas Narmer was an Old Kingdom pharaoh
Ramses II (1279-1213 BCE)
over a thousand years after Pharaoh Narmer
led an enormous building campaign
many temples and statues of himself across Egypt
half of the surviving temples in Egypt date from the time of Ramses
apparently had many dozens of children
a pharaoh was a kind of super-human, father-god figure
statues are much larger than life-size
represented in similar ways to Narmer
wearing a crown which symbolizes upper and lower Egypt joined
has beard which represents his status as pharaoh
pharaohs are often represented still, often seated, which suggests repose and tranquility
suggested that they don't need to move, that they are so powerful they can just sit
led many military campaigns
south against the Nubians into modern-day Sudan
north against Hittites into modern-day Syria
we aren't sure how well he did in these battles
the representations of them are all apparently commissioned by Ramses or other Egyptians to suggest what a great leader he was
clearly he did a good enough job to keep Egypt from being invaded by either the Nubians or the Hittites
it may be that he just fought them to a standstill and everyone went home
a few cases where Pharaohs are represented differently
Queen Hatshepsut (1507–1458 BC)
a member of the Egyptian royal family
the daughter of Thutmose I
the wife of his son Thutmose II, so she married her brother
mother of Tutmose III
the way the family structure of the dynasty was set up was that it was based on inbreeding within the family and incest
the belief that the pharaoh's family was so sacred that members could only marry members of that family
this makes good symbolic sense but very bad genetic sense
resulted in many difficulties for the pharaohs over time
Tutmose III became pharaoh at the age of one
she was made the regent to rule over the kingdom
instead of simply be the queen mother who was in charge until her son grew up
she actually took over as pharaoh
this was something that was not usually done in Ancient Egypt by women in the royal household
some statues of her represent her as a women, but other shoe her as a pharaoh where she is represented as being male
she was probably seen as taking on masculine identity
she becomes symbolically the father of the country
the Temple of Hatshepsut
survives to this day
one of the best surviving temples from that period
clearly she wasn't any kind of second-class pharaoh of that period
Bust of Nefertiti
the wife of Pharaoh Nakanatan
her bust was sculpted in 1345 BCE
one of the most stunning works of art from ancient Egypt
Neues Museum in Berlin
the Egyptians want it back
the Germans want to keep it
painted on limestone
realistic and life-like
wrinkled on her eyelids and neck
represented as a human woman not a god
wife of Akhenaten
the most unique and distinctive pharaoh of all
tried to completely transform Egyptian religion
the only real god as the sun-god Aten
made Aten into part of his name
Egyptians followed this for a little while
this fell apart pretty quickly after he died
one of the first cases of anywhere in the world of monotheism
most societies were polytheistic
before the Jewish religion and certainly before Christianity or Islam
had unorthodox religious beliefs but also allowed unorthodox styles of art
Bust of Nefertiti
much more realistic than other pharaonic art before and after Akhenaten
art work: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and their Children
an ordinary family
a kind of an emotional, laid-back picture with a certain sentimentality about it
much more informal representation in Egyptian history
Akhenaten's son
Nefertiti was not his mother since Akhenaten had many wives
we don't know who Tutankhamen's mother was
but Tutankhamen's mother was one of Akhenaten's sisters
came to throne of age 9
lived to age 19
death was probably caused by broken leg
probably also had malaria
throughout his life also had trouble walking because he had birth defects being from an incestuous union in a family that had been incestuous before that
not known for anything he did as pharaoh
is known because his tomb was the only one found in the modern age without anything having been taken from it
his tomb was opened in 1923 by Howard Carter
they found all of the regalia, all of the tomb artifacts, and all of the gold and jewels and treasures
this find is important because Tutankhamen didn't rule for very long