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Notes on video lecture:
1600-1850: Psychology Emerges
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
aphasia, autopsies, Locke, jumbled, natural, Broca, Rousseau, Dutch, articulated, frogs, Wernicke, Descartes, spirits, physical, spiritual, Galvani, puppeteer, doctor, materialism, Mill, mind, philosophical, animals, Voltaire, localization, distinct, bioelectricity, interactions, Frankenstein
throughout the centuries, humans have generally perceived themselves as                  in some way, i.e.                in a material world
yet for things that were physical, as the scientific method was developed, humans began to see that                          that those materials show show adherence to physical laws, and through careful observation and systematic experimentation, they could figure out what those laws are
led to physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy
as humans continued to perceive themselves as spiritual beings, it didn't make sense to study themselves scientifically
this began to change first through                            thought, and then through                    and biological experiments on the body
psychology would have never gotten underway if we didn't start to think of ourselves as non-                   beings in a                  world, and these thoughts are generally thought to have started with                   
philosophical thoughts on dualism and materialism
René Descartes (1595-1650)
French philosopher
spent most of his adult life in the            Republic
Cartesian coordinate system
one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution
believed                were fully machine-like
believed humans had a Cartesian dual nature, partly machine and partly soul
believed that the soul could at times control the body like a                   , but can also sit back and let the machine do its own thing and be subject to                laws
John            (1632-1704)
believed that maybe even the          was mechanic and physical and thus subject to natural laws that would be studied
English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
social contract theory
his writings influenced                  and                  as well as the American revolutionaries and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence
contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
James          (1773-1836)
called this line of thought                       : that we have no souls which can govern our bodies and therefore all human behavior reflects material interactions which are governed by natural laws which can be studied
Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher
founder of classical economics
father of influential philosopher of liberalism, John Stuart Mill
empiricism
the notion of conducting experiments which demonstrate clearly what is and what is not true
biology
Luigi                (1737-1798)
Italian physician, physicist and philosopher
studied medicine and had practiced as a             
in 1771, he discovered that the muscles of dead            legs twitched when struck by an electric spark, one of the first forays into the study of                             , a field that still today studies the electrical patterns and signals of the nervous system.
the demonstration was very powerful to those who saw it, indicating to them that there was no soul or spirit left in the frog's legs, but applying an electrical current, you can animate the leg as if it were full of life
but that is a frog, what about souls in humans?
Paul            (1824-1880)
French physician, surgeon, anatomist, and anthropologist
studied the Broca's Area of the brain, responsible for                        language
revealed that the brains of patients suffering from                contained lesions in a particular part of the cortex
patients would follow instructions well, but when they tried to speak, their language was               : they could understand language but not produce it
Paul Broca asked these patients if, when they died, he could remove and examine their brain, an unusual and crazy-sounding idea at the time, but a number of patients agreed
every one of the patients had damage in a particular area of the brain
Wernicke's area (subsequently discovered by Carl                 , 1848-1905) turned out to be damaged when people had the opposite problem: could speak but couldn't understand
these findings led to general theories of brain                         , that distinct parts of the brain seem to have distinct functions, which is a characteristic also true of machines
this localization is true even of such high-level specifically human skills such as language
Mary Shelley's                          was written during a time when scientists and doctors were starting to think of the human body and the human mind as a machine, something that you could even put together with spare parts.
1600-1850: Psychology Emerges
Psychology Before Freud
Sigmund Freud: The Fork in the Road
Branches of 20th Century Psychology
Observational Research and the Rosenhan Experiment
Knowledge Association
Theory of Mind