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Notes on video lecture:
Psychology Before Freud
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
parallels, psychologist, Weber, empiricism, Helmholtz, functional, physics, economically, Wundt, Leipzig, machinery, research, merit, neural, health, Wittenberg, difference, introspection, physician, experimental
psychology has a tension in terms of its scientific           , which leads to two kinds of psychology
clinical approach
scientific approach
late 1800s: psychology was born in Germany
late 1800s, a period where Germany was                          a very strong country, the strongest in Europe and perhaps in the world
invested their money in                  to stay at the leading edge
wanted to keep the nation at the forefront in areas as diversified as              care and military might
had the will and means to consider new approaches to scientific research, more so than other countries at the time
Hermann von                    (1821-1894)
German physician and physicist
didn't call himself a                         
called himself an "empirical philosophy" which is coming pretty close to psychology
known for his mathematics of the eye, theories of vision, ideas on the visual perception of space, color vision research, and on the sensation of tone, perception of sound, and                     
what he did for psychology was that he showed if you are clever, you can study some of the issues related to the                    of the mind
people thought before him that              transmission happened so fast that you could not study it
did experiment with people in a chain holding hands, when you feel your left hand squeezed, squeeze your right hand, measured the total time that it took to go through multiple people
discovered it was approximately 25-28 meters per second, a measurable speed
Ernst            (1795-1878)
German physician who is considered one of the founders of                          psychology
studied medicine at                      University
presented to participants two stimuli, e.g. which line is longer, which light is brighter, etc.
studied difference you had to add for people to tell the                     , the just-noticable-difference
this depended on the original length of the line or the original brightness
e.g. people could tell a 10ml line from a 12ml line, so a 20% difference they could perceive
he found "Weber factors" which were percentages of differences which we could perceive for each of our senses
he called what he was doing "psycho               "
this showed that the mind was open for study, we can have a science of the mind
Wilhelm            (1832-1920)
physician, psychologist, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology
first person to ever call himself a psychologist
1874 University of               , first experimental lab devoted to psychology
1879 wrote the first the first psychology text book
favored procedure called introspection
inspect the contents of your consciousness
had so-called "trained observers" to look into their mind and report what they found
structuralism: what is the structure of conscious experience
many scientists did not feel                            was scientific in the sense of the rest of science
making the experience verbal changed the experience
Darwin (1809-1882)
what he did to psychology                    what he did to biology
when on the Beagle, he was collecting specimens, bringing them back, and trying to put them into taxonomic categories
biologists would look at the feature and group these specimens according to features
Darwin: we are focusing too much on WHAT the features are and we should be asking WHY they are the way they are
longer beaked finches tended to live where there were insects in holes
this mentality came into psychology: don't look for what the features are but why they are the way they are
William James (1842-1910)
American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a                   
one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced
one of the founders of the                      psychology
experience life, sit in a chair and reflect on things like attention, memory, human will and consciousness.
1600-1850: Psychology Emerges
Psychology Before Freud
Sigmund Freud: The Fork in the Road
Branches of 20th Century Psychology
Observational Research and the Rosenhan Experiment
Knowledge Association
Theory of Mind