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Notes on video lecture:
The Warrior's Experience of War
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
mental, justice, danger, Thersites, physiology, Odysseus, Agamemnon, archaic, divinely, senseless, Priam, Apollo, tenth, color, insanitary, Shay, psyche, atrocities, lost, commoner, mutiny, bravery, Phobos, armor, flak, deformed, crack, speaking, 40, dies, spree, plague, pity, die, berzerk, comradeship, dehumanizes
one of the most impressive aspects of the Iliad is the way Homer comprehends the              state of the warrior
how the warrior is affected and changed over time by constant exposure to             
and by seeing his comrades       
how war                       
and why people fight even if they don't believe in the                of the cause
or in their actually being any cause
so it is important to remember that when the Iliad begins, the Trojan war is in its            and final year
yet even one year would be sufficient to
cause morale to           
cause soldiers to commit                      which they would ever otherwise be capable of doing
by the time we enter the picture, the war has already taken a toll
the play opens with             
caused by              because of the fact that Agamemnon has taken as prisoner the daughter as one of Apollo's priests
given the                      conditions in which the Achaeans were living, a plague was bound to break out
the cause of the plague is over-determined, both                  caused and rationally caused
back in                Greece they probably didn't know what the scientific cause of plague was
war is not only about               
fear affects the soldier no matter what
Homer observes it closely
the skin of the coward changes            one way and another, and the heart inside him has no control to keep him steady, and he shifts his weight from one foot to another, his heart pounds violently as he thinks of the death spirits and his teeth chatter together
we hear of             , the sun of Ares the god of war, who frightens even the patient-hearted warrior
a                        is of very high value
in a modern army Patroclus [Πάτροκλος] would be awarded high honors, because he sacrifices his life for his comrades
Achilles likens him, however, to a little girl when Patroclus felt for his comrades who put themselves in harm's way
Iliad starts with an assembly, an argument between Achilles and                   
                  , a Greek soldier who verbally criticizes Agamemnon
ugly and somewhat                 
treated as a comic character
the only common soldier to have a                  role in the Iliad
put down both verbally and physically by                 
no clearly statement of aristocratic principle
after 10 years of indecisive war,              is imminent
challenged by both Achilles, his most valiant warrior, and by Thersites, his most expendable                 
Achilles withdraws from Book 2 through Book 8
comes to realization that it is                    to risk your life in battle
Patroclus asks Achilles if he can borrow his Achilles           
Achilles warns him to not go to far
Patroclus then         
Achilles is rough, but becomes rougher after Patroclus dies
goes on killing            which is the most shocking description of killing in the entire poem
Homer shows us the emotional state of a soldier who has just          his dear comrade
in effect he goes               
a Norse world that describe soldiers which fight in a kind of trance
derived from ber (bear) and zerk (pelt)
supposedly what these soldiers wore when they went into battle
berzerking soldiers shed their helmets and          jackets
this is what Achilles does when he first hears of Patrolus' death
he says to his mother Thetis, do not hold me back from the fight, you will not persuade me
but Thetis persuades him otherwise
Apollo says of him: Achilles has destroyed         
for a man who must lose someone who is even closer, a brother of the same womb, or a son
Achilles has destroyed pity
a very powerful, terrifying judgement, and we know this happens in war
and when the killing spree is over, Thetis returns to Achilles and asks that he returns Hector's body to            which he does
what happens to Achilles after the war we never learn since that is where the poem ends
we never see Achilles again after he has returned the body
Jonathan Shay notes that     % of Vietnam combat veterans continued in engaging in violent acts after they returned from the war
if a soldier survives the berserk state, it imparts emotional deadness and vulnerability to explosive rage to his psychological and a permanent hyper-arousal to his                     
Homer provides us with an extraordinary analyses of the damage to the              which war-induced explosive rage afflicts on the mind and physiology of the soldier
helps us to hear what many veterans have been desperately trying to tell us about going berserk

Spelling Corrections:


Ideas and Concepts:

Male bonding in the Iliad via tonight's Trojan War class: "The relationship between Achilles and Patroclus is a key element of the myths associated with the Trojan War. In the Iliad, the two heroes have a deep and meaningful friendship. Achilles is tender towards Patroclus, while he is callous and arrogant towards others. The exact nature of the relationship between these two men has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times, being interpreted in various cultures and at various times as everything from a egalitarian homosexual pairing, to a strong, non-sexual friendship between two war heroes. Due to their strong relationship, the death of Patroclus becomes the prime motivation for Achilles to return to battle. Whether in the context of a tender friendship or military excellence, Homer treats this relationships explicitly in the Iliad, yet left it open enough for later authors and cultures to reflect a variety of themes into their interpretations and development of this story embedded in the wider scope a major epic of our Western culture's literary heritage."
Book recommendation via this morning's Trojan War class: "Jonathan Shay's Book 'Achilles in Vietnam' works from the premise that the study of the Homeric epic, The Iliad, can illuminate our understanding of Vietnam, and vice versa. He compares the battlefield experiences of men like Agamemnon and Patroclus with those of frontline grunts, analyzes the berserker rage that overcame Achilles and so many American soldiers alike, and considers the ways in which societies ancient and modern have accounted for and dealt with post-traumatic stress disorder, a malady only recently recognized in medical literature, but well attested in Homer's pages. Homer provides us with an analysis of the damage to the psyche which war-induced explosive rage afflicts on the mind and physiology of the soldier, and Shay's book helps us to want to hear what many veterans have been desperately trying to tell us about going berzerk."
Background of the Trojan War
Was the Trojan War a Historical Event?
How Was the Iliad Poem Born?
The Homeric Question and the Trojan War
The Structure of the Iliad
Homer, the Heroic Code, and the Wastage of War
The Warrior's Experience of War