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Notes on video lecture:
Savanna Chimpanzees
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
hunt, West, primatologist, galagos, personalities, funding, behaviors, stressed, hominids, water, Fongoli, water, bonobos, nutritional, four, Savanna, aggression, six, accustomed, 230, male, hydrophobic, tamarins, casts
if we want to understand early                 , we have to compare ourselves to our closest living relatives today: the chimpanzees and               
Jill Preutz
                           and professor at Iowa State University
has been working with chimpanzees for over a dozen years years in               , Senegal
living in a unique environment, a Savanna context
they are dealing with some of the environments that our ancient ancestors were inhabiting
these chimpanzees exhibit therefore some unique                    compared to other chimpanzees
hunting behavior
social interactions
how they use different parts of the landscape as part of their lifestyle
when she began this research, no one had done extended research with chimps in a                setting before
one issue: no one had ever habituated Savanna chimps before (getting them                      to the presence of human researchers observing their activity)
therefore difficult to get               , since the habituation process could be long and expensive
took          years to habituate them
not just one person but many different kinds of people involved in the research
record their behavior
examine the products and tools that they make
                       content of the food they are eating
many grad students working on project
passes on quite a bit of work others on her team, e.g.            of teeth for dental experts to study
adds to her approach of behavioral psychology which is observational
has to limit the number of people who can work at the site because of restrictions for the chimps
most interesting observed behavior of chimps
the use            purposefully
they soak in water
was surprising because for a long time we thought that chimps were                       
but as a human you can related to it completely: it is hot in the Savanna
       incidents of using hunting tools
we have known for a long time that chimpanzees         
meat is a relatively small but important part of their diet
very          biased in terms of who is hunting and who's getting the meat
at her site, they found that they not only use tools to hunt
they hunt bush babies (              ) with a stick
the females, mostly the young females, do more of this kind of hunting than the males, while the males hunt in other ways
now looking at meat sharing or food transfer, out of the top 11 hunters there were        females
food sharing
many of the models of human evolution hold food sharing as important
an infant chimpanzee was taken by poachers
the researchers were able to get her back and put her back in the clan
the first chimp to find it after the researchers put it back, carried it to the mother, saw that the mother had been injured, and that male helped her carry the infant for a few days, although he was not directly related
we tend to think of chimps as behaving in one certain way, but they have                            that are distinct and constant
in more dense forest environments, there are recorded incidents of aggression between groups and patrolling of borders between groups
in the Savanna, home range is 86 square kilometers
no acts of lethal                      in 12 years of observation, e.g. no wars with other clans
there has been of course aggression within the group
trying to patrol an area like that doesn't make sense energetically
in Tanzania where Jane Goodall worked, it's 8 square kilometers
we've defined chimps according to this East African chimpanzee model, but          African chimps differ in significant ways
they are a different subspecies, some say they should be a different species
we do things that are in the behavioral range of primates
the chimps are often                 , for instance from the heat, and they have ways of dealing with this stress, such as submerging themselves in           
how did Jill Pruetz get started
volunteers with chimps in Texas
everybody wanted to study chimps, she wanted to study                 
best way to get experience in this field
volunteer in a different country or culture
you need to have experience
it also is the best way to know in a practical sense what you are interested in


Hominidae, n. [haw-MIN-i-dee] A taxonomic family of primates, including four extant genera: (1) chimpanzees of genus Pan, (2) gorillas of genus Gorilla, (3) humans of genus Homo, (4) orangutans of genus Pongo. A member of the Hominidae family is often called a "hominid" although another popular meaning of hominid is the more restricted sense as "hominids" or "humans and relatives of humans closer than chimpanzees", e.g. Homo Neanderthalensis, Homo Soloensis, Homo Floresiensis, and Homo Erectus.  "The most recent common ancestor of the Hominidae lived roughly 14 million years ago, when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestors of the other three genera"
tamarin, n. squirrel-sized New World monkeys from the family Callitrichidae in the genus Saguinus, lives in Central and South America in tropical rain forests  "In some cases, such as in the cotton-top tamarin, males, particularly those that are paternal, will even show a greater involvement in caregiving than females."
galago, n. a small, nocturnal primate native to Africa, commonly known as "bush babies", they evolved 40–50 million years ago from slow-moving prosimians that could not compete with larger, faster primates in Africa, the competition was much less at night, so they evolved into the bush babies they are today, and in both variety and abundance, bush babies are the most successful primitive primates in Africa  "With one possible exception, in the suborder Strepsirrhini, which includes lemurs, galagos and lorises, the grooming claw is on the second toe."


woman who studies chimpanzees in African savanna and where
Jill Pruetz in Fongoli, Senegal
nocturnal monkeys in Africa
squirrel-sized monkeys in Brazil
Rising Star Expedition - Fall 2013
Savanna Chimpanzees
The Molecular Clock
What is Biological Evolution?
The Place of Ardipithecus
Hominid Bipedality
Early Hominins
Hominin Species and Speciation
The Laetoli Footprints of Australopithecus afarensis