914
Lectures Watched
Since January 1, 2014
Hundreds of free, self-paced university courses available:
my recommendations here
Peruse my collection of 275
influential people of the past.
View My Class Notes via:
Receive My Class Notes via E-Mail:

VIEW ARCHIVE


Contact Me via E-Mail:
edward [at] tanguay.info
Notes on video lecture:
Exposition, Development and Recapitulation
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
lost, junctures, unfolding, cycle, narrative, nowhere, hues, three, dominant, harmonically, instability, character, unchanged, altered, story, benevolent, invention, third, exhale, Haydn, saraband, chord, diatonicism, wilderness, four, spaciousness, framework, immensity, gaps, binary, blur, classical, odd, edgeless, conflict, minor, middle, suspense, themes, tonic, chordal, grand, gallantry, tonality
Mozart's B-flat major sonata, K333
first theme comes in the           , B-flat
the theme goes               
it begins in b-flat major
and ends in b-flat major
it has no roll but to establish the                  firmly
and to be extremely beautiful
second theme is established in the dominant F
two roles
establish the                 
contrast in character
first theme is                  and lyrical
second theme has a backbone and                    behind it
the two oppositions are connected to one another
we have left home                         , and there have been changes in the music as a result
the sonata form is three part
exposition
the first and second themes almost always appear in the exposition and form its basis
development
the                      period
very often the most fascinating part of the sonata movement
because it is the least settled
we inevitably begin away from home on the dominant where we left off from the exposition section
then we go fishing around for the tonic
we            through many keys, not just F-Major but F-Minor, C-Minor, G-Minor before finally resolving dominant tonic back home
whatever happens in the development
even though in           , Mozart, and Beethoven there is an enormously wide variety of harmonic events and developments
no matter where we have been, we are reminded that the dominant is the            that led us away in the first place
recapitulation
it does, literally, recapitulate the events in the exposition
with one key difference: we do not leave the tonic
this means that the first theme is                    from the exposition
but the second theme which was initially in a foreign environment now returns home
the arrival of the second theme in the home or correct key is what can be thought of as the              moment in the sonata form
the moment when we feel a sense of security that the                  has been resolved
just in moving the key from dominant, where it originally was, back to the tonic, its character has been               
this is the miracle of                        and the sonata form
the sonata form has been called a pure                    of the classical era
it's worth noting that the model of moving to the dominant and then going back to the tonic does not originate in the classical period
nearly all the              movements in baroque dance suites, allemandes, courant,                 
what is new is the business of hearing the first theme again not in the tonic but in the dominant
the Mozart K333 example
conservative in how it          to the model
undramatic in                   
listen to the first movement
even in such a                      sounding work, notice how strong your need for that resolution is
the fundamental psychological essence of how we hear a sonata is contained in that tonic/dominant relationship
think of a sonata less in terms of psychology and more in terms of                   
one of the most critical components of a successful performance is to convey the sense of a            being told
not a literal story, at least not typically, but any good performance will give the impression of events                   , of moving from one state into another
and this stripped down form of sonata form also implies a stripped down story: we are home, we are         , and finally we return home again
this created a powerful                    for the classical masters
they used it over and over again because it simultaneously provided an inherently dramatic basis, and yet gave them immense creative freedom to fill in the         
Mozart: Alla Turca Sonata
a spectacularly        work which defies this plan
Haydn occasionally wrote two rather than           -movement sonatas
omit the standard first movement
but by the time Beethoven comes along, the first movement of the sonata was defined very well, but also for:
piano trios
string quartettes
symphonies
early                    period
the first movements are where the action is
Haydn Sonata Hob.XVI No.50
entirely traditional
but introduces the movement in the extremely remote key of A-flat-major, and uses C-major
simultaneously he asks the pianist to hold the sustaining pedal down, creating a          effect
an example of how harmony is color
Mozart, K493
the exposition is quite traditional although Mozart gives the piece a            theme
which he often does when he wants to give the music a generosity and                         
this really isn't radical, the second and third themes are similar in character and form a thematic group which collectively contrast to the first theme
but the second theme appears in no fewer than seven different keys culminating in an incredible         -voice canon where the instruments trade the theme back and forth
through the constant harmonic movement, he creates a powerful sense of                       , not just harmonic instability, but emotional instability, because none of this is theoretical because harmony is the main currency of feeling in all music, at least prior to the 20th century
Mozart, K515
here here is an immensely long exposition
the longest classical exposition of any piece prior to             -period Beethoven
he takes his sweet time establishing the dominant
once he gets there, he includes not one, not two, but three              on it
rather than provide a long development to make the proportions work out
he writes one which is only the fraction of the length of the exposition
but by changing the style of writing so dramatically from                writing to intricate counterpoint, from long periods of harmonic stasis to constant harmonic motion
he creates such a feeling of unrest, that the development more than holds up to the                    that has preceded it
Beethoven - Sonata No. 8 Opus 13
contained with in this movement is a sonata in standard form albeit in a            key
but is preceded by a lengthy and slow introduction
a bit unusual
but Beethoven brings with material back in two dramatic                    in the movement
this serves to do is to create a sense of confusion-based agitation in the listener
we no longer understand how the material from the introduction fits into the            plan
it's role is really entirely external to the sonata form
but its repeated appearances are so jarring, they create an element of                  in what would otherwise be a very straight-forward, dramatic movement

Spelling Corrections:

diotonicismdiatonicism
essenseessence
emmenseimmense
suspencesuspense

Ideas and Concepts:

The anatomy of a sonata via tonight's Exploring Beethoven's Piano Sonatas class:

"The sonata form is three part:exposition, development, and recapitulation. Exposition presents the two themes which form its basis, the first theme presented in the tonic chord, and the second in the dominant.

Next, the development or the wilderness period, is very often the most fascinating part of the sonata movement because it is the least settled:we inevitably begin away from home on the dominant chord where we left off from the exposition section, then we go fishing around for the tonic. In Mozart's Piano Sonata in B-Flat, for instance, we cycle through many keys:not just F-Major, but F-Minor, C-Minor, and G-Minor before finally resolving dominant to tonic back home. Even though in Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven there is an enormously wide variety of harmonic events going on in the development section, no matter where we have been, we are ultimately reminded again that the dominant is the chord that led us away in the first place.

This brings us to the recapitulation section, which literally recapitulates the events in the exposition, but with one key difference:we do not leave the tonic. This means that the first theme is unchanged from the exposition, played in the tonic, but the second theme, which was initially in a foreign dominant, now returns home to the tonic, and this arrival of the second theme in the home tonic, or correct chord, is what can be thought of as the exhale moment in the sonata form, the moment when we feel a sense of security that the conflict has been resolved. Just in moving the key of the second theme from dominant, where it originally was, back to the tonic, its character has been altered, and this is the miracle of diatonicism and a unique beauty we find in the sonata form."
The essence of a sonata via tonight's Exploring Beethoven's Piano Sonatas class: "Listen to Mozart's K333, conservative in how it hues to the sonata model yet undramatic in character. Listen to the first movement:even in such a benevolent sounding work, notice how strong your need for that resolution is. The fundamental psychological essence of how we hear a sonata is contained in the tonic vs. dominant relationship. You see, analysis is not that complicated after all:it's like a Woody Allen joke of spending 20 years and thousands of dollars of psychological therapy only to find out it's all about how your parents messed you up. Or if it helps, think of a sonata less in terms of psychology and more in terms of narrative. One of the most critical components of a successful performance is to convey the sense of a story being told, not a literal story, at least not typically, but any good performance will give the impression of events unfolding, of moving from one state into another, and this stripped down form of sonata form also implies a stripped down story:we are home, we are lost, and finally we return home again. This created a powerful framework for the classical masters:they used it over and over again because it simultaneously provided an inherently dramatic basis, and yet gave them immense creative freedom to fill in the gaps."
Complex music of the evening, via tonight's Exploring Beethoven's Piano Sonatas class: "Mozart K493 is an exposition that is quite traditional although Mozart gives the piece not two but three themes, which he often does when he wants to give the music a generosity and spaciousness. But this really isn't that radical, as the second and third themes are similar in character and form a thematic group which collectively contrast to the first theme. But the second theme appears in no fewer than seven different keys, culminating in an incredible four-voice canon where the instruments trade the theme back and forth. Through the constant harmonic movement, Mozart creates a powerful sense of instability, and by this I mean not just harmonic instability, but emotional instability, as harmony is the main currency of feeling in all music, at least prior to the 20th century."
Mozart's longest exposition, via tonight's Exploring Beethoven's Piano Sonatas class: "In Mozart's K515, we meet with an immensely long exposition section, the longest classical exposition of any piece prior to middle-period Beethoven. Mozart takes his sweet time establishing the dominant, but once he gets there, he includes not one, not two, but three themes on it. Rather than provide a long development section to make the proportions of the piece work out, he writes one which is only the fraction of the length of the exposition. But by changing the style of writing so dramatically from chordal writing to intricate counterpoint, from long periods of harmonic stasis to constant harmonic motion, he creates such a feeling of unrest, that the development more than holds up to the immensity that has preceded it, all of which, as always, in the third recapitulation section, is resolved and returned home."
Beethoven's Sonata No. 8 Opus 13, via tonight's Exploring Beethoven's Piano Sonatas class: "Contained within the first movement of this piece is a sonata in standard form albeit in a minor key, but what is unique is that it is preceded by a lengthy and slow introduction. While this is a bit unusual, what is even more unusual is that Beethoven brings this introduction material back in two dramatic junctures in the movement. What this serves to do is to create a sense of confusion-based agitation in the listener. We no longer understand how the material from the introduction fits into the grand plan. It's role is really entirely external to the sonata form, but its repeated appearances are so jarring, they create an element of suspense in what would otherwise be a very straight-forward, dramatic movement."
Historical Background: Beethoven and Bach
Beethoven's Precursors: Bach, Haydn, Mozart
Beethoven: The First Professional Composer
The Tonic, the Dominant, and Sonata Form
Exposition, Development and Recapitulation