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Notes on video lecture:
Abolition of Serfdom in Russia
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the character of the Russian state from its establishment to the pre-                           time
the great dividing line is         
the liberation of the           
how did serfdom develop and what were the consequences of serfdom
serfdom is the essential social fact of                history
which has significance very much going into              times
serfdom developed relatively         
at a time when the serfdom conditions in Europe became lighter and ultimately diminished
two aspectes led up to it
1. the                              of the peasantry
came about because the Russian lands were not particularly suitable for                       
the best Russian cultivatable lands are comparable to the            cultivatable lands in the United States
         was a collection of cities and towns, but Russia had nothing comparable
the consequence of this is that a surplus that elsewhere contributed to the creation of cities, did not develop in Russia
thus the                      as a restraining force to the aristocracy did not come into existence at all
significant in 16th and 17th century when Russia was engaged in a number of         
spread of epidemics
peasants were         , able to move, etc.
had to borrow in order to survive and so          himself into serfdom as a result of the wars
policies of the state
the Russian prince would assemble an          of the small land owners
he could only pay through giving them land
the land was not by itself very                 
16th, 17th century
aristocrats, the richer landlords were in the position to compete for labor by offering better conditions to peasants
the state had an interest in the                      of the peasantry
to keep them ready and                enough to serve in the army
forbidden to          in certain years
         all free movement of the peasants was suspended and they became tied to the land
2. character of the nobility
could never have the characteristic of the                nobility
they were                      diverse
some descendants of Kiew princes
some came from               
acquired power through service of the Czar as opposed to having ancient connections to the land
the Czar made sure that this would not happen by moving the central location of aristocrats from one place to another
consequentially, the aristocrats were not able to effectively oppose                power
what developed instead was a bureaucracy
there perceived interest was that of the state rather than that social class
               criticism saying that this was a state that served the interests of the nobility was not really accurate
it was a very          state
sounds                       , since it was an autocracy
autocracy means there is no                        force on central power
weak state means that the                        which the central power had to influence every aspect of the culture, were missing
Russia was                governed
the sense of public service was never developed
a great weakness
the Soviet Revolution of 1917 attempted to                  this weakness
Russian culture
it remained fundamentally a                    culture up to the time of Peter the Great
the beginning of a division
1. Russians who believed that Russia was an                        and separate nation than Western Europe
2. Russians who were                    by what Europe had to offer
Peter the Great became acquainted with the West
are willing to recognize the concept of                          in their culture
to this day there is this fundamental division in Russian                          life
1861 Serfdom was                    by the state
economic reasons
it was                       
serf had little interest in improving the land
the peasant commune remained in place
represented the Russian peoples' commitment to                   
major force before and after liberation
a hindrance
countryside was overpopulated
resisted peasants from moving into the city, since it would lower        revenue
the beginning of                                   
spiritual reason
Russian rules including the nobility lost faith in the                  of keeping people serfs
1861 is the same year as the beginning of the American civil war
the nobility carried out                          functions
once the authority of the nobel was abolished, everything had to be                   
state entities such as city councils came into being
last decades of the 19th century, comparatively         
a major change in many areas of life
Abolition of Serfdom in Russia