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Notes on video lecture:
Pre-Einstein Physics up to 1905
Choose from these words to fill the blanks below:
Edison, frog, radio, reality, Atlantic, ether, Volta, Hertz, 100, light, railroads, bar, special, switches, signalling, experimental, electron, theoretical, philosophers, current, times, Morley, straight, wave, compass, radiation, inorganic, 1840, obituaries, shocks, gravity, breeze, sustained, nothing, Munich, Young, rationality, real, Maxwell, rethink, physics, factory
1800 is good place to start talking about               
but the term "physicist" was not coined until about         
before that people who worked in physics might be called natural                         
1800 there was a split based on what "natural philosophers" worked on
organic matter
the branch that became physics focused on inorganic matter
1800: battery
came out of experiments done on animal electricity
e.g. how we can stimulate nerves in          legs
Alessandro            made an inorganic version of this
significance was that you could get a                    electric current
before that you could get sporadic electric             
you could store limited amounts of electrical current but no sustained electrical current
this opened up many kinds of new inventions over the next        years
1800:          theory of light
before this, Isaac Newton had the theory of               
became the greatest mind of the time
so scientist followed his lead on his concept of light as well, light being particles, or                  rays
around 1800, Thomas            revived the theory of light as waves
1820s: electromagnetism
shown that if you have a sustained current through a wire and you brought a                needle next to it, it would change directions
clearly a connection between electricity and magnetism
                   because to carry passengers, connecting cities
electromagnetic induction
mentioned on the first page of Einstein's paper on the                theory of relativity
loop of wire,        magnet closer to loop, you generate an electric current, as you move the bar magnet back and forth
if you have a wire and can send                down it, then you can make a communication device
              's equations
synthesized and explained the work that people had been doing with electricity in the past half century
allowed the prediction of electromagnetic waves traveling through space
the classical theory of electromagnetic                   
traveled at a speed close to the known speed of light
the natural conclusion was that light was an electromagnetic wave
telegraph still expanding
under                  Ocean
expansion of the railroads
in U.S., transcontinental railroad
telegraph and railroad went together
because you need a good                      system for the trains
synchronizing of clocks
cities before that often had different           
mechanical models
water waves travel through something, disturbances through water
this analogy applied to light assumes that there must be some median that light waves travel through, referred to as "          "
the French thought the British were going off in the wrong direction
derided their mechanical models, reminded them of the                system
the French physicists prided themselves on clarity and                        of thought
interesting to reading                      of these scientists
British: creativity
French: rationality and clarity of thought
physics division of labor
experimental physicist
Masters Degree in Engineering from MIT
19th century
                         physicists were at the top
theoretical physicists really didn't exist
German universities you typically only had one physics professor
they were typically experimental physicist who ran the show
perhaps an assistant
this was the type of world Einstein was born into
by the time he was a physicist things started to change
1879: Einstein born
Incandescent lighting
            's great innovation was the whole system of electric lighting
the wires
the power
Einstein's father and uncle were entrepreneurs in             
specialized in incandescent lighting
won contract to supply lighting for Oktoberfest
discovery of electromagnetic waver
conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light
Hertz, became a term for units of cycles per second
died in his mid-30s
           started almost immediately after this
Michelson-             experiment
if light waves are going to be traveling through the ether
as the Earth moves around the Sun
at the surface of the Earth, we should have an "ether             " in our face
therefore if you shine a light in that direction and in the opposite direct
they found               
there was not "ether breeze" effect
made people                their theories
the electromagnetic worldview
attempt to "get to the really         " and explain almost everything in terms of electromagnetism
looking at electromagnetism as the basis of physical               
the                  was discovered in the 1890s
Einstein in college
nature of           
time and space
came at this from a different direction
career up to delivery of his most influential papers


Thomas Young (1773-1829)
An English polymath who established the wave theory of light, overcoming the century-old view, expressed in the Isaac Newton's "Optics", that light is a particle
  • "The experiments I am about to relate may be repeated with great ease, whenever the sun shines, and without any other apparatus than is at hand to every one."
  • made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology
  • he made a number of original and insightful innovations on the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs (specifically the Rosetta Stone) before Jean-François Champollion eventually expanded on his work
  • he was the eldest of ten children in a Quaker family
  • by the age of fourteen Young had learned Greek and Latin and was acquainted with French, Italian, Hebrew, German, Aramaic, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Amharic

Spelling Corrections:

Pre-Einstein Physics up to 1905
Einstein's Life Up To 1905
The Annus Mirabilis Papers of 1905
Dirac, Einstein, and Mathematical Beauty
Events, Clocks, and Observers