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C O U R S E 
Advertising and Society
William O'Barr, Duke University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Three Definitions of Advertising
Notes taken on December 29, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
we know it when we see it, but it can be difficult to define
three definitions
1. "any device which first arrests the attention of the passer-by and then induces him to accept a mutually advantageous exchange"
James Laver, art historian, late 19th century
a broad definition
includes a flower that attracts through its color and nectar a butterfly to land on it, and in return, the butterfly helps to pollinate
being so broad, we lose the specificity
picture of roadside women at a market in India
they have laid out fruits and spices that are for sale
ruins in Italy
in excavating this city, one found signs that wine was for sale in building
key features
2. "the official are of capitalist society"
Raymond Williams, social theorist
a kind of sponsored are that is a part of a particular kind of society, namely, capitalism
is locating advertising in a particular context today
it is the official art of current society just as churches of the medieval churches had church windows
today, Coke might pay for the artists, back in the 16th century, wealthy patrons such as the church and wealthy individuals and families paid for it
portrait of Catherine Medici
portrait of Frederick Barbarossa's wedding
in contrast in Soviet society
large image of Stalin being promoted to the public
the great festival of advertising in American culture
key features
links advertising to the social context in which it exists
not general as in Laver's definition
focuses on modernity
as sponsored art
someone is paying for it, i.e. usually corporations
advertising is supportive of the social, political, and economic system
3. salesmanship in print
John E. Kennedy, advertising copywriter
advertising is what had pasted as salesmanship prior to print
old image of a department store
you sit at a glove department
you sit across from an expert
dialogue between salesman and consumer
advertising takes this phenomenon and converts it to print
image of London train station late 19th century
advertisements everywhere on wall
shift from print to audio
advertisement from 1936
1940s and 1950s
needs to account for
all advertisements on the computer and mobile devices
product placement
stadium advertisements
face-to-face communications
social media