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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Closing of the American Frontier
Notes taken on July 7, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
by the 1890's, this second process of industrialization showed resistance
with great expansion came great turmoil
a coexistence of dynamism with crisis
the 1890s was a decade that fused together expansion with turmoil
from people deployed on factory lines
the assembly line was probably not something Karl Marx could have imagined
it was not something he forecasted for capitalism
he thought the working class would be a new kind of working class which overthrows capitalism and creates communism
it's true that factory workers pooled themselves together in international groups
1880s the process of unionization
tried to negotiate better terms of employment with employers and magnates at the top
demanded the rights to organize at all, to become a trade union itself
a source of a great deal of tension between employers and employees
the struggle over what would become collective bargaining began
strikes swept across the world
as industrialization fans out, so does the pattern of resistance
an example in which the world was shrinking
not just resistance in the core of industrialization, but also in the peripheries of the system
globalization was reaching its apex of reach
Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890
between U.S. military troops and Lakota Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota
resulted in the deaths of 300 Sioux men, women, and children
the last major resistance against the expansion of the United States in the late 19th century
in other areas of the world
Chile: Mapuche uprising of 1881
major rebellion of the indigenous Mapuches of Araucanía
took place during the last phase of the Occupation of Araucanía (1861–1883) by the Chilean state
Argentina: the Conquest of the Desert (1870s)
a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s with the intent to establish Argentine dominance over Patagonia
Roca after the campaign would go on to become the president of the Argentine Republic
Brazil: Suppression of Canudos (1896-7)
a conflict between the state of Brazil and a group of some 30,000 settlers
had founded their own community in the Northeastern state of Bahia, named Canudos
after a number of unsuccessful attempts at military suppression, it came to a brutal end in October 1897
a large Brazilian army force overran the village and killed nearly all the inhabitants
villagers did not want to be incorporated into the international system
the 1890s was a decade that say violent repression in many parts of the world
in order to finalize the process of the incorporation of the peripheries
villages were used to their subsistence, communally oriented livelihoods
while the vocabulary of freedom was important for explaining the new logic in comparison to the mercantile age
yet freedom coexisted with coercion
there was a sense that the pattern of expansion could not last
The Panic of 1873
financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879
longer in some countries
in Britain it started two decades of stagnation known as the "Long Depression" that weakened the country's economic leadership
The Panic of 1896
an acute economic depression in the United States that was less serious than other panics of the era
precipitated by a drop in silver reserves and market concerns on the effects it would have on the gold standard
mass unemployment
factories shut down while the world dealt with this
the back-lands was getting used up
Frederick Jackson Turner
went to Chicago to celebrate the 400th Christopher Columbus anniversary
the World Fair
gave a speech 1893
"the American Frontier is now closed"
pointed to census data that there was suddenly no more land to be had, which was not technically correct but was portentous
ask the question: where were the next frontiers going to come from, where was the new expansive power of the capitalist system going to come from
the United States was exceptional because it had a frontier
we were becoming an old world society
essay: "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
The Frontier Thesis
the moving western frontier shaped American democracy and the American character from the colonial era until 1890
there was a need for new lands and new resources
a fear of competition between rising powers
this motivates a scramble outwards
the Europeans and the Canadians, Americans, and Argentines
responded to this paradoxical combination of having plenty and having anxiety
pushed out into the rest of the world
a new round of imperial expansion
not unlike the one uncorked in the 16th century
in this way, the second industrial revolution spurred another spasm of empire