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C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1970s Democratic Socialism Becomes a Non-Choice
Notes taken on August 26, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
direction of global economy in 1970s
the social democracy model failing
the model of big companies, big government, big unions doesn't seem to be working culturally or economically
capitalism being questioned
1975, Time Magazine cover, "Can Capitalism Survive?"
1980, Time Magazine cover, "Is Capitalism Working?"
the rise of communist parties in Western Europe
Enrico Berlinguer
early 1970s: traditional communism didn't look unstable yet
it looked as though the Soviet Union and their allies were at least not failing
the higher price of oil tended to favor the Soviet Union in the short run
they produce a large amount of oil
gives them hard currency
enables them to bolster communist states
economically, socially, it looks like state socialism might be working
big alternatives that are emerging
increased focus on civil rights
there needs to be something more involved in world politics than just a balance of power
1977-1981 Jimmy Carter was a symbol of some of this
the Cold War "swing areas" of the 70s: key areas which instigated change
1. Western and Central Europe
2. China
choices made in these areas are going to change the flow of the Cold War
just as in other areas of history, these were key areas
two U-turns
1972: Edward Heath turns to the left
was going to fix inflation and fight unions
1972 gave into the unions
increased spending
increased inflation
bitterly denounced by Thatcher, "this lady is not for turning"
1982: Francois Mitterrand turns to the right
leader of a democratic socialist party
1981: had taken charge of France in partnership with the communists
1982: joined a new economic and political consensus emerging in Europe which moved away from Communist influence
democratic socialism
had been slowly emerging in European governments throughout the 1970s
1974-1979: Labour Party in England
1981: Mitterrand's PS (Parti socialiste) party came into power and invited the Communist Party into his first government
unions such as the one that caused Edward Heath's U-Turn in 1972
unions want wages to keep up with inflation
the public had to take sides
Thatcher and British Conservatives
Scargill and the striking miners
the British public ended up mostly taking sides with Thatcher in this case
surge of Eurocommunism
Enrico Berlinguer
had been under dictatorial rule of Franco
1975: Franco passed away
leading faction were democratic socialists
rise of single-issue parties
ethnic nationalism
rise of concerns for governability and public order
people feel like their societies are breaking down
union policies are having too much influence
domestic terrorists
Italy: the Red Brigades
formed 1970
violent attempts to destabilize Italy by acts of sabotage, bank robberies, and kidnappings
kidnapped and murdered Christian Democrat Prime Minister Aldo Moro
Iran: U.S. embassy in Iran overrun by Iranian revolutionaries
reaction to these events was: we need stronger public order
democratic socialists can't free themselves of taint with association from the USSR
by late 1970s, Soviets are getting a pretty bad press
invasion of Afghanistan
late 1970s: it's hard to look at the Soviet Union and see anything that looks like a model for the future
the Soviet Union feels no strong incentive yet to reform their implementation of socialism which makes it difficult for socialist movements in Europe to get wide support from the public
the result is that democratic socialism does not become the wave of the future in Europe