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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Global Food: European Sugar, Caribbean Plantations, African Slaves
Notes taken on November 16, 2013 by Edward Tanguay
the explosion of world trade created vast pools of wealth
colonization began the accumulation of resources above what was necessary for societies to subsist or survive
no longer did wealth come from the skimming off of what a village could produce
now societies were being constructed primarily for the production of goods for other societies and specializing in this goods
we see this above all in the formation of colonies
designed from the start to produce commodities for other peoples' consumption
colonization was at the heart of global processes
many global historians over look this
colonies were once societies with village based structures
there's something that happens to societies when they start producing goods and services that are not for themselves and that they specialize in that
specialization is the opposite of self-sufficiency
there is a connection between specialization of communities and a global division of labor
artisans used to do every task to make a pin
the division of labor
what Adam Smith saw that something happens once we start to make things called factories
provides two new relationships to the market: buy and sell your goods
a pattern of dependency develops
global interdependence
the rise of the merchant capitalists
it's in Europe that we are going to see the development of concentrated pools of capital
indigenous people had to get their traditions access to networks and resources cut, and are forced to turn to the market place
people begin to consume commodities which were once preciosities
the idea that we would all start to consume drugs on a mass scale is a product of the mercantile age
Virginia was a colony created to produce tobacco for other people's consumption
sugar, tobacco, tea, coffee clustered together
people consumed these in cafes
all of these were tropical, indeed, the whole cocktail was narcotic
tea house or coffee house was place for public gathering for urbanites
to produce
coffee comes from the Arabic term "Kawa", domesticated in Yemen
Ottomans brought it to Istanbul after Yemen was seized in the early sixteenth century, by 1615 the habit of of drinking coffee had moved to Vienna.
what makes coffee drinkable is the sugar, and so sugar migrates, it has a biography
this acquired taste and addiction trickles down
increasingly becomes mass-produced
drinking coffee, tea, with sugar, and smoking became part of the proper decor of a bourgeois family
the consumption of sugar trickled down to everyday habits of mass consumption
behind European sugar consumption was the Caribbean sugar plantation done by slaves imported from Africa