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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1890-1914: Savage Wars of Peace
Notes taken on April 4, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
latter half of the 19th century
a long Victorian boom
represented a dynamic of a great production and circulation of plenty
new ideas
a feeling of possibility
population growth increasing
intensified interdependence between societies
the world had a center, located in Europe
the British economy, and London in particular
capitalist frontiers spread into hinterlands
tribe-like people's displaced
animals displaced, e.g. buffaloes, tigers, elephants
in spite of the bounty produced by the Victorian boom, not all was so euphoric
by 1914 there was an important distemper, a disenchantment
there were many anxieties about it before WWI brought it down
regimes were much more fragile and precarious than we realize
anti-colonial struggles
against core metropolitan societies radiating out of Europe
fighting against forced and involuntary incorporation
protests against the elites in countries to be able to be able tot take part in the bounty of globalization
capitalization produced surpluses but it was unevenly distributed
Cubans fighting Spain
one of the last of first round of colonies fighting for their independence
Cuban and Filipino efforts
using new models of warfare
anticipated what would happen later
imperial armies poised again local guerilla movements
over the 20th century, warfare evolved from being the classical story of organized armies to confrontation between less organized groups
blurs the boundaries between combatants and civilians
implications for how we understand total war
guerilla forces draw their sustenance from villages and towns
intentionally blur the line between civilian and combatant
imperial armies are struggling against civilians
they find themselves waging wars not against armies but entire societies
often involves warfare of armies against civilians
1898 Cuba
first mention of concentration camp
attempt to fight guerilla warfare, isolating rural people from the insurgents who were waging unconventional warfare against imperial armies
savage wars of peace, spread from 1890s onward
African upheavals
South Africa
uprising on the part of the descendants of the Dutch settlers, the Voortrekkers, against the British rulers
Boer Republics
The Orange Free State
gold had been discovered
British called this a war of pacification
a kind of warfare people had never seen before
fighting Boer guerillas: villagers, civilians
much ethical controversy
the war ended with a compromise, which later led to Apartheid
extermination practices deployed by armies
the Herero people rose up against the German colonialists
land-grabbing efforts on the part of the German government
what we would now call ethnic cleansing or ethnic extermination
creating camps and allowing disease to spread in such a way that it would destroy native populations
the images where horrific
arable lands were cleared
those who resisted had their wells poisoned
General von Trotha: "All the Herero must leave the land. If they refuse, then I will force them to do it with the big guns. Any Herero found within German borders, with or without a gun, will be shot. No prisoners will be taken. This is my decision for the Herero people."
"Take up the White Man's burden, the savage wars of peace. Fill full the mouth of famine and bid the sickness cease. And when your goal is nearest the end for others sought, watch sloth and heathen folly bring all your hopes to nought."