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C O U R S E 
The Bible's Prehistory, Purpose, and Political Future
Dr. Jacob L. Wright, Emory University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
725 BC: The Fall of Israel to Assyria
Notes taken on November 7, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
the Arameans played a more prominent role than the Assyrians for most of the 9th century BC
this situation slowly changed
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
thought to display the earliest ancient depiction of a Biblical figure - Jehu King of Israel
803 BC: Assyrian king laid siege to Damascus
this weakened the area
enabled Jehoash and Jeroboam II to reconquer some of the lost territories in the Galilee and Transjordan areas
regained some of the prosperity that the Omrides had enjoyed
Israel Kings that reigned from 787-747 BC
Jehoash and Jeroboam II
subserviant to Assyria
paid tribute to Assyria as vassals
prosperity of this era was due to increased olive and wine production
Samaria Ostracon
receipts for the delivery of wine and oil
inscriptions attest to the centrality of Yahweh
Tiglath-Pileser III (745 BC - 727 BC)
within 25 years, most of the kingdoms of the Levant had been conquered
capital of Isreal was about 25 times smaller than Nimrud, the capital of the Assyrian Empire
at first Israel remained loyal to Assyria
King Manachem of Israel
746-737 BC
paid 37 tons of silver to Assyria in order to maintain Israel's independence
the way he came up with that money is in 2 Kings 15:19-20, "from all the very wealthy, from each man fifty shekels of silver"
733-732 BC
states of Levant form a coalition led by King Rezin of Aram-Damascus and King Pekah of Israel
tried to force the king of Judah to join their side
Biblical account
2 Kings 16:5-9
5 Then Rezin king of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah king of Israel marched up to fight against Jerusalem and besieged Ahaz, but they could not overpower him. 6 At that time, Rezin king of Aram recovered Elath for Aram by driving out the people of Judah. Edomites then moved into Elath and have lived there to this day. 7 Ahaz sent messengers to say to Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria, "I am your servant and vassal. Come up and save me out of the hand of the king of Aram and of the king of Israel, who are attacking me." 8 And Ahaz took the silver and gold found in the temple of the Lord and in the treasuries of the royal palace and sent it as a gift to the king of Assyria. 9 The king of Assyria complied by attacking Damascus and capturing it. He deported its inhabitants to Kir and put Rezin to death.
Isaiah 7:1-9
1 When Ahaz son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, was king of Judah, King Rezin of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah king of Israel marched up to fight against Jerusalem, but they could not overpower it. 2 Now the house of David was told, "Aram has allied itself with Ephraim"; so the hearts of Ahaz and his people were shaken, as the trees of the forest are shaken by the wind. 3 Then the Lord said to Isaiah, "Go out, you and your son Shear-Jashub, to meet Ahaz at the end of the aqueduct of the Upper Pool, on the road to the Launderer's Field. 4 Say to him, "Be careful, keep calm and don't be afraid. Do not lose heart because of these two smoldering stubs of firewood—because of the fierce anger of Rezin and Aram and of the son of Remaliah. 5 Aram, Ephraim and Remaliah’s son have plotted your ruin, saying, 6 "Let us invade Judah; let us tear it apart and divide it among ourselves, and make the son of Tabeel king over it." 7 Yet this is what the Sovereign Lord says: "It will not take place, it will not happen, 8 for the head of Aram is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is only Rezin. Within sixty-five years Ephraim will be too shattered to be a people. 9 The head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is only Remaliah's son. If you do not stand firm in your faith, you will not stand at all.
Israel was reduced back to core territories
a petty kingdom surrounding the city of Samaria
one has to be skeptical of the Biblical claim that it was Ahaz that brought Tiglath-Pileser to the land
however, we know from Assyrian records that Ahaz paid tribute to the Assyrians
King of Israel Pekah was deposed by the Assyrians and replaced with Hosea
Tiglath-Pileser claims to have done this himself
exacts from him a yearly tribute of gold and silver
727 BC: death of Tiglath-Pileser
Hosea attempted a revolt with the help of Egypt
the decision was a catastrophic one
Shalmaneser V, son and successor of Tiglath-Pileser
besieges Samaria for several months
722-720 Samaria conquered, kingdom of Israel falls
Sargon II was the one who conquered, and records say he took men to man his chariots
rebuilt town of Samaria better than it was before
place officer as governor over them
citizens counted among the citizens of Assyria, and they also had to pay tribute
Assyrians began to rule in Samaria
although there were deportations, many people were left in Israel to carry on its traditions, and the formation of some of the Biblical writings