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C O U R S E 
The Emergence of the Modern Middle East
Asher Susser, Tel Aviv University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Ottoman Empire's Changing Balance of Power with Europe
Notes taken on October 2, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
dramatic change with the balance of power with Europe
up until the middle of the 18th century, the Ottomans could feel to be on an equal footing with Europe
and before this period even superior to Europe
in the last quarter of the 18th century, a dramatic change began to took place
the gab in science, technology, military and economic power was shifting in favor of the Europeans
important advances in medicine lead to population growth in Europe
more ship building and economic expansion
powerful navies and armies
Russian Ottoman War 1768-1174
critical turning point
Russians won war and took over the area of the Crimea
brought the Russians to the banks of the Black Sea
it was no longer an enclosed Ottoman lake
brought the Russians closer to the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits that lead to the Mediterranean
this not only meant the loss of control of the Black Sea but the first loss of control of Muslim subjects
a great historical reversal
it was of importance in terms of legitimacy for the Ottoman Empire to be the ruler of Muslims and not to have Muslims taken over by Christian powers
the Ottoman Empire saw itself as the protector of Muslims and Islam
the 19th century was the century of European empires
Europe seemed to be ruling the world
this led many people in the Ottoman Empire to realize that something had gone wrong in the cosmic order of things
the belief in the historic supremacy of Islam over Christianity
it was in need of an update
Selim III (reigned 1789-1807)
began first serious efforts at modernizing the Ottoman armies
before the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt
the fact that reforms began in the military is significant
meant that the the military was the vanguard of Western modernizing reform
because they were modernized, they often became the leaders of revolutionary change in later decades
led to revolutionary change in other spheres
required the learning of foreign languages: French, English, German
led to the influx of foreign ideas
created a cultural shock
realized that Islam was not superior in the world
new ideas
equality for before the law
individual rights
gave rise to new forms of identity and organization of the political community
1798: Napoleon's invasion of Egypt
most dramatic invasion into the Ottoman Empire
the French stayed for three years until they were forced out by the British and the Ottomans
the first intrusion into the very heartland of the Ottoman Empire
not only an intrusion by an exposure to the greatness of European power at that time
not just military power
but scientific missions
brought to the Middle East scientific advancement and progress
population of Europe increased by 50%
Britain's population grew from 16 million to 27 million
London became the largest city on earth, with a population of 2.5 million people
between 1815-185-, Britain's increases of exports to the Eastern Mediterranean increased by 800%
Europe's need for raw materials meant olive oil from Tunisia, silk from Lebanon, and cotton from Egypt
the Russians and the French interfered regularly in the affairs of the Christians of the Ottoman Empire
the Russians supporting the Orthodox Christians, the Serbs and the Greeks
the French protecting the Catholics
at a later stage Britain tried to play this minority game by supporting the Jews and the Zionist idea in Palestine
in the Ottoman empire, it was the Christians who were the first to be affected by Western ideas
they had a greater openness to the Christian West