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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Rashid Rida and 19th Century Islamic Modernization
Notes taken on November 1, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
end of the 19th century
humans were becoming national subjects
becoming Japanese
becoming Brazilian
becoming German
these were all states and nations that scarcely existed a century earlier
the national frame gave people a sense of new identity for defining their membership in political communities
those who were bereft of a state
didn't have a polity that they could connect their imaginations to
the Jews
the Gypsies
the Comanches
those who lived in a state where the ruling state was of a different nationality
Arabs under Ottoman rule
the many African-Americans who began to feel after the Civil War was perhaps the United States was unable to deliver on the promises of their declaration of their emancipation
many began to dream and yearn for a return to Africa itself
people for whom a state was not there to create a nation
some political systems functioned more like networks that transcended global boundaries
associated statehood with land which did not yet exist for them
American identity emerges very tied up with territory
also Argentines and Russians
what happens to those who don't have access to a frontier the way the Americans, the Russians and the Argentines had
the role of books and media was important
promulgated a utopian idea of a community that didn't exist
intellectuals played an important function
the Ottoman Empire
the Turks and Arabs were the inheritors of an older political structure
an Islamic empire
many different peoples, languages, and faiths
nationals and Turks were in the midst of political pressures
Russian expansion from the north
fueled regional nationalisms
after the opening of the Suez Canal, the Islamic states were feeling closed in
increasingly encircled by expanding Christian empires
increase of debate and intellectual life in Islamic worlds
from India to West Africa
from Delhi to Mecca
Muslim intellectuals discussed how to cope with the shrinking world
Rashid Rida (1865-1935)
early Islamic reformer
his ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an the Islamic state
was keen to modernize law, to update it
to make it compatible of the new global order
criticized the old ruling caliphs
criticized the traditional the priesthoods for holding Islam back
represented nationalism and modernization in the Islamic world
how to adapt Islam to this new global order
take this sacred tradition of law making and apply it to new, secular structures
adapted Islamic law for new nations
if Islamic states could imagine themselves as modern states, they could incorporate science and modernization
this was tied to land and ethnic boundaries
wanted to treat the Islamic world as an Islamic version of Europe
divided up into nation states
Egyptian University created
center for new contemplation for how to modernize Islam
1857 Syrian Scientific Society