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C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Conflicts in Postwar Nation Building
Notes taken on May 8, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
conflicts in postwar nation building
divided up into military zones of occupation
no separate East and West Germany yet, just different zones occupied by different armies
Soviet Union
moved west annexing West Ukraine (former East Poland), West Belorussia (former East Poland), Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, liquidating the Baltic Republics which had been created after World War I
Poland was moved west
Germans in new Poland are uprooted and flee westward
Soviet troops playing a key role in all of these places
capital of Nationalist China had been at Nanjing
but had to move their capital during the war to the center of China
Japanese move out of large areas of Eastern China as prisoners, leaving a void for the Chinese to fill
many colonies remained
French Algeria
French West Africa
French Equatorial Africa
Belgian Congo
Portuguese Angola
South America
countries mainly stayed out of WWII
Southeast Asia
a very dynamic postwar area of the world
is in turmoil as civil war is reigniting in China
Japanese had
pushed the French out of Indochina
pushed the British out of Burma and out of the Malay States and the capital, Singapore
pushed the Dutch out of the East Indies and occupied the Philippines
when Japanese leave as prisoners, a vacuum is created
the French are trying to reclaim their position in French Indochina (Vietnam)
Americans are ambivalent
French soon locked into warfare against a Viet Minh resistance ("League for the Independence of Vietnam") which is increasingly receiving communist support
British trying to reclaim their position there
Malay States
1946 Americans grant independence to the Philippines, but this republic faces resistance in the Hukbalahap Rebellion (The Huks) which started in 1942 against the Japanese, is intrigued by the Communist example, but was ended in 1954
British were deeply divided about what to do about India
the war had intensified all of that
Britain promised India that if they fought on their side in the war, Britain would give them self-government when the war was over
the question was: what should an Indian state look like?
how to reconcile between princely rulers and democratic rulers
in 1947 the British threw up their hands and quit
violent partition of the country
heavy Muslim areas of India created themselves as a new state called Pakistan
exchanges in populations
millions of lives lost
resettlements on both sides of the lines
princely state of Hyderabad (center of India) retained some autonomy but annexed by India in 1948
disagreements on border with China and what should happen to Tibet
The Near East
turbulent post-war period
direct mandatory rule in Palestine and Trans-Jordan
British alliance and protectorate with local rulers in Iraq and Egypt
British military occupation in former Italian colonies of Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia
1945-1946 focal point: Iran
war of nerves
Russians had occupied the northern part of the country
British and Americans had occupied the southern part of the country
during the war, the Allies were fearful that a government allied with the Nazis would take control in Iran and cut off their supply to its oil
when the war was over, the military forces of all side had promised to leave
Americans and British were moving out but British retained extremely valuable concession to get oil out of Southern Iran
the Russians were slow to leave, creating spheres of influence and groups of allied supporters
1946: Russians finally agreed to leave but this skirmish contributed to the rising tensions of East and West which led to the Cold War
origins of the Cold War
actually an older struggle that was going on before WWII
but useful to boil it down to dilemmas of people trying to solve real and concrete problems such as "what are we going to do in Iran?"
no one worked harder to solve problems like these than George Marshall
had the most prestige
given the most difficult tasks
met with Zhang Qun (Nationalists) and Zhou Enlai (Communists)
Americans had a sympathy with the Chinese Nationalists
trying to help the Nationalists relocate and fill vacuum left by departing Japanese occupiers
Soviets were divided in helping their Communist friends since the Soviet Union wanted to get a hold in Manchuria as well
Marshall wanted to see if the two sides would share power somehow, but concludes that it won't work, blames both sides for seeing it as a zero-sum game
comes away with a negative image of the Nationalists
both Soviets and Americans thought that Nationalists would control the game
moving towards the edge of starvation
British and French are themselves broke and having trouble feeding their own people
but who is going to benefit from chaos? the communists
Marshall in Moscow
talked with Bevin, British Foreign Minister
British have concluded Marshall's plan to get an agreed effort between the Soviets and the Western powers is a hopeless adventure
Marshall talks to Vyacheslav Molotov, foreign minister
Moscow negotiations fail
Marshall had plan on table to disarm Germany for 25 years with multi-national police forces
America would pay reparations to the Soviets
Allies don't think Marshall's ideas of cooperation will work and the Soviets are unresponsive
Marshall leaves Moscow in failure
Stalin is content with folding his arms, watch Germany collapse into starving chaos and reap the benefits from that disorder
Marshall feels he has to do something else
1947: Marshall gives an address to the American people: the patient is dying while the doctors are deliberating, and he needs to find a way for American to grab the strategic initiative in a world that seems to be disintegrating