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C O U R S E 
The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem
Oded Lipschits, Ph.D., Tel Aviv University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Outcome of the Assyrian Conquest
Notes taken on March 1, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
the outcome of the Assyrian conquest of the Levant
second half of the 8th century BCE
first half of the 7th century BCE
the essential background of the understanding of the history of Judah when it was conquered by the Babylonians
Tiglath-Pileser III (ruled 745-727 BCE)
king of Assyria
founded the Neo-Assyrian Empire
introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems
set the foundations for the Assyrian administrative organization
shaped the geopolitical situation for most of the area
annihilation of territorial kingdoms
abolished the national distinctions
no independent political entity developed in the Assyrian territories in the next few centuries
foundation of Assyrian provinces
departed a large part of the population which he conquered
replaced them with exiles from remote regions
no military threat to the Egyptian, Babylonian, or Assyrian, Persian and later the Selucid empire (312-63 BCE)
the Assyrian Empire extended its rule over all of the Levant
was only a small part of this area
provinces to the north above Samerina (Israel)
Sargon II
722 BCE
completed the defeat of the Kingdom of Israel
capturing the area after a siege of three years and exiling the inhabitants
became the basis of the legends of the Lost Ten Tribes
720 BCE
annexed the rest of the territory to Assyria
established a third area called Samaria
consisted mainly of the Samarian Hills, the heart of the former kingdom of Isarel
Ekron, Ashkelon and Gaza
enjoyed the auspices of the Assyrian Empire due to
strategic location, gateway to Egypt
economic viability: maritime trade adn agricultural commodities
an important port
produced wine
olive oil
growth under 7th century BCE
served as outlet port from Arabian trade
Sargon II focused on this city
remained loyal Assyrian vassal kingdom
maintained their alliance to Assyria
frontier against nomadic tribes
distinctive raw materials
encouraged production
Assyria provided protection
important junction of Assyrian commerce
great prosperity
extensive cultural prosperity
not too clear but probably enjoyed prosperity like Ammon and Moab
Judah was a small peripheral mountain kingdom
intense trauma in 701 BCE by the Sennacherib campaign
weakened military strength and human resources
although enjoyed economic prosperity within the Assyrian commercial system in the 7th century BCE
much more important
military and economic aspects
Assyrians spent much more effort here
hill country
less important
two kinds of political rule
direct rule over provinces by governors and officials
indirect rule over vassal kingdoms
complex system of agreements and inspectors
varied by interests of each kingdom
rules of this era
Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727 BCE)
Assyrian King
Sargon II (722-705)
Assyrian King
was a son of Tiglath-Pileser III and appears to have seized the throne from his brother, Shalmaneser V in a violent coup
Sennacherib (ruled 705-681) king of Assyria
followed Sargon II
military campaigns against Babylon and Judah
building programs, notably at his capital Nineveh
Nebuchadnezzar II (634–562 BCE)
Neo-Babylonian King
construction of the Hanging (Gardens( of Babylon
destruction of Jerusalem's temple in 587 BCE
Cyrus the Great (576–530 BCE)
founder of the Achaemenid Empire