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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Ottoman Empire's 19th Century Tanzimat Reform
Notes taken on June 15, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
early 19th century, new concepts of citizenship
always present, especially in the colonies
especially in the slave utterly bereft of rights and the master who enjoyed among other things the right to brutalize and rape slaves
Dominican Republic
the question of exclusion and inclusion is poised and electrified
Toussaint L'Overture
the black Napoleon
casting fear around the world
the French Revolution brought to life this idea of exclusion and inclusion
The Ottoman Empire
beginning to come apart at its edges
1798 French expedition to Egypt
thought of taking over this province and modernizing it
pulling it away from the capital in Istanbul
Mohamed Ali Pasha (1769-1849)
believed in Egypt as an autonomous political space
made appeals to British to invest in Egypt
regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted
idea was for Egypt to exist within the loose membrane of the Ottoman Empire
concocted a new Axis with British and French
economic relations to the rest of Europe
1821 Greece broke away all together
1832 became independent
the crisis of internal breakaways as Greece and Egypt
gave the sultans some room to maneuver and reinvent the Ottoman Empire against:
traditional agrarian elites
the old office class that had failed to defend the Ottoman Empire
the traditional Islamic clerics
sultans followed examples of
Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Sultan Macmud II
30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839
began the process of reforming the Ottoman Empire
known as The Peter the Great of Turkey
1826 abolishment of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors reforms in the Empire
revamped fiscal structure
tried to get away from old system of tax farming
updated and modernized the military
created schools that would educate the population
borrowed new innovations from Europe
the goal was to create a modern Ottoman Empire capable of competing on the global stage
tried to negotiate a pact with Muhammad Ali of Egypt
Tanzimat Reform
Tanzimat = reorganization
a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876
modernize the Ottoman Empire
secure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements from within
defend itself from aggressive powers from outside of the state
sought to grant emancipation to non-Muslim subjects of the Empire
integrate non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the Empire