More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Two Europes That Emerged After WWII
Notes taken on May 16, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
Marshall Plan
the name was deliberate because George Marshall was considerably more popular than Harry Truman
would raise the odds of getting it through congress
but it was a team effort:
Dean Acheson
played key role
stressed anti-communist message to congress
advocate of free trade
George Kennan
contain Soviet communism and it will "expire of its own contradictions"
no military confrontation
an economic revival in Western Europe was necessary
Will Clayton
major role in shaping the Marshall Plan in 1947
economic adviser to Truman at the Potsdam Conference
-In 1948, he returned to his private business in Houston, but remained active in efforts to promote free trade
came from Texas, dealt in cotton, advocate of free trade
one reason why Europeans couldn't buy products from America is they didn't have hard currency
we have this image of the Marshall Plan as a foreign aid effort, we were very generous and we gave the Europeans tons of money. That's a kind of good cartoon story of the Marshall Plan, but you can't learn anything from it. It misses what really made the Marshall Plan work:
1. the Marshall Plan encouraged the Europeans to "create a shopping list", tell us what you would buy if you had a lot of dollars
then the American government would be their purchasing agent, "we'll go buy it"
of course, the American government will buy it from American companies
the Europeans like it because they get massive amounts of money to make purchases from the United States which they otherwise would not be able to afford
2. Europeans had to agree that they would knock down the trade barriers within Europe
America said: "We're not going to deal with eight European countries, each with it's own trade walls"
then you can participate together and create your shopping list for us
3. prewar political rivalries have to be downplayed and muted
communist point of view
everything about the Marshall plan is wrong, since the Americans are the hub, not the Soviets
cooperative elements imply free trade, incompatible with communist economic ideology
implementation of the Marshall Plan
1947, 48, and into the 50s
gave people confidence that "the glass was filling instead of draining"
gave them political and economic confidence about the future
vision for Europe
created a vision for Western Europe as a cooperative entity combining its resources
French political polls
no right wing, monarchical voting, although a few Gaulists but not very strong
communists at their height, made up majority with democratic socialists, and social democrats
1947 Communists launch a general strike, and are pushed out of power
social democrats:
big government, big companies, big unions, free market with a strong government role, a lot of institution building
sometimes called Christian Democrats
become the key centrist force
Jean Monnet and Robert Schumann
cooperated, and are committed to bridging Western European countries and getting them to work together
Eastern Europe
Soviet Union increasingly tightenting its grip
a tragic story for the fate of Eastern Europe
subverted democratic forces
made sure that they and their allies seize power
West was helpless to intervene
created flashpoints
was a shock since the whole cause of Czechoslovakia was still fresh in minds from WWII
divided Germany and divided Berlin
1948: Soviets cut Berlin off, forcing Berlin to be kept afloat
this backfired and created iconic images of the West going to great lengths to provide for Berlin
images like the American plane landing in Berlin to feed children had a galvanizing effect on Europe and clarified the nature of the two Europes that were coming into existence