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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Portuguese Indian Ocean Empire
Notes taken on October 12, 2013 by Edward Tanguay
Europe set for more sea trips to the Indian Ocean
the news of da Gama's discovery of the Indian Oceans turned into a rampage
da Gama, humiliated by his experience in Calicut, was determined to return
1502: second trip to Calicut
went through every ship in the harbor
cut off the hands, noses and ears of sailors
burned ships with sailors aboard
burned a ship on its way to Mecca
intent was to show King Zamorin that he was resolved
Pedro Cabral
returned to Calicut two years after de Gama, bombarded port for two days
targeted entrepôt ports
1510 seized Goa
1511 seized Malacca
1513 could not seize Aden (Yemen)
1515 seized Hormuz
couldn't take them all
had to fight Ottoman fleets which were also in the area
on the whole, the pattern of aggression and war-making worked, relying on the combination of surprise and power of European military technology, that the artillery was on they ships changed the rules of the game
Portuguese created new hubs in Asia
occupied territorial Brazil and taking the choke points from Asia to Indonesia to the Red Sea
were changing the balance of the world
one of the two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China, the other being Hong Kong
administered by Portugal from the mid-16th century until late 1999, when it was the last remaining European colony in Asia.
new system called "Estado da Índia"
based in Goa
merchants were given a passport called a cartaz in return for protection, in other words, state-sponsored piracy
reached a limit, there is only so much predation can do in the long run
same time as Cortés was marching toward Aztec capital, the Portuguese were dreaming of their own empire in Indonesia and China
drugs and spices were part of the imagination and fantasy world of these explorers and discoverers
Tomé Pires (1465-1540)
Portuguese apothecary
fascinated with drugs, plants and spices
was sent to India Ocean to see what he could find out about the plants there
set up in Malacca
witnessed plundering and ravaging by Portuguese
fascinated by plant trade: bananas, hibiscus, bamboo, nutmeg, pepper
was sent to China to do for the Portuguese what Cortés had been doing for the Spanish in Mexico
1517 arrived in China and face different fate
Chinese Emperor was not like King Zamorin of Calicut
expected Chinese to welcome Europeans as potential allies against Islam, that old foe that was currently occupying Jerusalem
didn't understand the transcripts of diplomacy
was not greeted as he hoped, force to wait
this was part of the protocol, as well as declaring your subordination as a premise for becoming an imperial guest
news had arrived in the imperial city of the plundering and predation by Portuguese in the outskirts of the Indian Ocean system
emperor tore up letters from Pires
Pires and entourage was arrested
Portugese traders on coasts of China were killed, vessels sunk
as Cortés was taking down Tenochtitlan, Pires was sentenced of piracy and espionage, members of his entourage were executed, body parts were displayed around Guangzhou where they had set off the volley of cannon fire to impress the emperor and their bodies rolled ceremoniously across the hills of the cities dung hill heaps.
Pires was never seen again
what this tells us is the consequences of the patterns of Portuguese penetration, the limits of their predation, and of China's learning to defend themselves against the new European interlopers