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C O U R S E 
The Changing Landscape of Ancient Rome
Paolo Carafa, Sapienza University of Rome
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Latium from Bronze to Iron Age
Notes taken on July 8, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
a large plain between the Mediterranean Sea and the Apennine Mountains
people began inhabiting Latium (area around Rome) in the 10th century BCE
their language was the ancestor of Latin
they believed that their city was created by gods
Janus, with two heads
Virgil's Rome legend
the first people were aborigines
"people who were there from the origin"
lived to the north of Rome
moved down and invaded Rome
at the same time, a second group from Turkey (Troiani) sailed to Rome
were led by a man Aeneas
had to escape from Troy
founded Lavinium (today Pomezia)
the port city for Latium
Trojans assimilated with the aborigines, and a new people was born, the Latini
the son of Aeneas, Ascanius, founded the city of Alba Longa
most probably at Lake Albano, south east of Rome
the city was destroyed by Rome in the 7th century
the last king of Alba Longa, Numitor
father to Rhea Silvia
Numitor's reign was usurped by Numitor's younger brother Amulius
dethroned Numitor and became king
killed Numitor's male heirs and forced Rhea Silvia to become a vestal virgin
Mars appeared and lay with Rhea Silvia
gave birth to sons Romulus and Remus
she was supposed to be customarily put to death after disobeying her vows
King Amulius was afraid of the wrath of Mars
so imprisoned her and ordered the twin sons to be killed by exposure to natural elements to save wrath of Mars
servant takes pity on the twins and put in a basket onto the River Tiber
discovered by a she-wolf Lupa
were fed by a woodpecker
shepherd and his wife found them: Faustulus and Acca Larentia
after they grew up, King Amulius' shepherds found them, Remus captured and took them before the king
Romulus freed his brother and killed King Amulius
rejected the citizens' offer of the crown of Alba Longa and instead reinstated Nimitor as king
left Alba Longa seeking to found their own city
quarreled over the location
Romulus wished to start the city on the Palatine Hill
Remus wished to found it on the Aventine Hill
they agreed to consult augury, a type of prophecy in which birds are examined and observed to determine what actions or persons the gods favor
remained at a standstill and continued to quarrel until Romulus began to dig trenches and build walls around his hill: the Palatine Hill
in response to Romulus' construction, Remus made fun of the wall and his brother's city
Remus jumped over Romulus' wall
Romulus killed him
Romulus mournfully buries his brother, bestowing upon him full funeral honors
Remus' death and founding of Rome are dated by Livy to April 21st, 753 BCE
divided into 30 regions
each part had a main village
each a kind of people
at the site where Rome was founded, you have three of these groups, or populi Albenses
the top of each hill occupied by a village
each city had foundation myths
founded by an Alban or Trojan ancestor
from this time we have only a few clues and artifacts to be interpreted, e.g. vases found in burial pits
between end of Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, around 10th century BC
something is changing in this area
Etruria (north of Rome)
small villages scattered around the river valleys
Latin vases were different based on the time it came from
we find these in graves
9th century BC
small villages are abandoned
people move to live in fewer, larger sites
many people moved to Rome
bodies are placed in coffins instead of urns
people begin to write on the vases
8th century BC
vases change more in terms of function
princely graves
villages are being unified into cities with political organizations