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C O U R S E 
Designing Cities
Gary Hack, University of Pennsylvania
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
19th Century Park and Boulevard Plans: From Paris to Kansas City
Notes taken on December 7, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
1950 was a long time ago
but cities of around 1950 where people went to a single urban center to work, shop, and entertainment are still what many people think cities are or should be
evolution of cities were frozen by
1929 worldwide depression
1939-1945 WWII
after destruction in WWII, building began again with established systems and more modern buildings
the central business district
central railway station
most office buildings
the best retail
leading hotels
theaters and restaurants
expensive residential districts fronting on landscaped park lands
surrounded by industry except for the most fashionable streets leading to the best suburbs
working class people lived near factories
middle class were connected to central district via street car lines
this format corrected large mistakes that were made with cities when they were first industrialized
how cities adapted to industrialization
1850 Paris
in 1850, Paris was the most progressive city in the entire world
new, wide, straight streets were cut through the city
to manage the traffic in the rapidly growing city
to connect from the north train station to the south train station
new streets were accompanied by new sewer and water supply systems
large parks created
Baron Haussmann, main designer
Parisian Boulevard became the model for many other European cities
wide enough for traffic
space for trees
light fixtures
public places that enticed people to come out in their spare time both day and night
people could now sit in tables on sidewalk under awnings
this could never happen in pre-industrial cities where streets were chaotic places jumbled and full of traffic
at this time, Paris was the world capital for architectural education
tree-lined boulevards
civic places
lined with elegant buildings
1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago
planned to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus' first voyage
opened a year late
large exhibit "White City" produced by Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris
became a model for other cities
thereafter every city seemed to want a park and boulevard plan for itself
1909 Park and Boulevard plan for Chicago
Chicago was never able to realize the plan since it didn't have laws limiting the height of building as Paris did
Civic Center was never built
buildings along the waterfront was carried out thanks in part to Montgomery Ward
Michigan Avenue is also a legacy of the 1909 Chicago plan
1919 Kansas City
car ownership was beginning to have an effect on cities as people began to live further way from the city center
George Kessler
landscape architect for Kansas City's Park and Boulevard Plan 1892-1915
became a prototype for park and boulevard plan adopted by so many cities in the 1920s
Country Club District
a corrective to the industrial city
trolley connected it to downtown
development began before automobiles were in widespread use
but car ownership made it successful
in 1929 alone, 5.3 million cars were manufactured in the United States
by 1930, there were 30 million cars on the road in the United States
one for 3 households out of 4
Country Club Plaza
one of the first suburban shopping centers
apartments across the creek overlooking the shopping district
this area was improved in the 1980s
1935 Downtown Kansas City
much more utilitarian place than the plaza
business-like places that were dominated by business
North America adopted to automobiles much more quickly than the rest of the world
since 1950
cities are no longer the way their were in 1950
in most cases, we wouldn't want to go back to the way they were
the Country Club Plaza in Kansas City was built on a foundation of discrimination and deed restrictions
many cities were in the grip of organized crime
many people lived in cramped apartments or very small houses
there was much more industrial pollution and more slum conditions