More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
Chinese Thought: Ancient Wisdom Meets Modern Science
Edward Slingerland, University of British Columbia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Guodian Laozi
Notes taken on February 2, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
archeological texts
some are versions of the Daodejing
texts that we have uncovered in their original written form
most written on bamboo with ink
some are silk text
Mawangdui, central China
manuscript on silk, 2nd century BC
some on paper where caves are particularly dry
typically these come from tombs
debate on what the relationship was between the text and the person who died, perhaps
they liked these texts
used these texts professional
they were thought to be important to them in the after-life
archeologists like archeological texts because they are the best of both words in terms of reliability and accuracy
First Song of the Book of Odes
give you more information
don't know when they were written
don't know when they were copied
tend to be elite texts
we can date them
some bronze vessels have a date on them
not changed, direct communication
combine informational richness with historical reliability
are often everyday texts, not from the elite or studied class necessarily
don't give us too much information
since the beginning of the 20th century, we are finding more and more
they revolutionized our understanding of early China
legal texts
a judge who was buried with his complete court cases
can be quite dry topics to read, e.g. some guy stole a chicken, what do we do
but for historians, it's gold
it gives you accurate and detailed information
both the legal system of early China
the daily lives of people
simpler texts
farmer's almanacs
day books
people trying to figure out why they are getting sick
a more accurate picture of everyday life on the ground
new philosophical and religious texts
the Guodian Laozi
unearthed in Guodian (Hubei) in 1993
near the former Chu capital
one of the southernmost Warring States
tomb was sealed in about 300 BCE
so we know these texts have not been changed since then
bamboo strips
water had entered the tomb
strips covered with mud
different length
the strings that held them together had degenerated
archeologists had to put them together
beveled the same way
the same length
string marks
line them up
handwriting is similar
conceptually which go together
like a jigsaw and crossword puzzle
written in Chu script
diversity of pre-standardization script styles
every state had their own script styles
types of texts
philosophical and religious
copies of received texts
Dao De Jing
a chapter of the Liji, or Book of Rites
copies of texts that we know about, that were listed in bibliographies but were lost
Wu xing (Five Types of Conduct)
new texts we had never heard of
seem to represent a lost school of Confucianism
Guodian Daodejing
three bundles
different handwriting and sizes
Laozi A
Laozi B
Laozi C, Taiyi Shengshui
creation story
doesn't correspond to anything in the received Daodejing
published in 1998
still debated who these documents relate to each other
random order
partial chapters
the Daodejing was probably a kind of central text which people could mix and match
texts were fluid
using different parts of text for different purposes
wording is different
received version:
"Cut off sageliness, abandon wisdom, and the people will benefit one hundred fold. Cut off benevolence, abandon righteousness, and the people will return to being filial and kind. Cut off cleverness, abandon profit, and robbers and thieves will be no more."
get rid of explicit morality and Confucianism
a clear anti-Confucian slant to this passage
Guodian version:
"Cut off wisdom, abandon distinctions, and the people will benefit one hundred fold. Cut off cleverness, abandon profit, and the people will return to being filial and kind. Cut off artifice, abandon reflection, and robbers and thieves will be no more."
no mention of Confucianist terminology
there is no doubt that there were differences between Daoism and Confucianism in the Warring States period
the Daodejing is picking metaphors which are explicitly against metaphors in the Analects
the concepts are different
the concept of de is almost the opposite
this divide probably gets more pronounced later in Chinese history
Warring States period
a ramping up of these differences
clearly in place by this time was the Zhuangzi "primitivist", chapters 8-10
different from the inner chapters
represent a primitivist school that looks a lot like the Daodejing school
but were produced at the end of the Warring States
talk about utopias where there is no morality or technology
webbed toes
horrible things that Confucianism does to warp our nature
horses hooves
people who put horse shoes on horses
people who mutilate nature
Robber Chih
echoes passages from the Daodejing
put them in an anti-Confucian context
Confucians as grave robbers
the anti-Confucian trope gets emphasized at the end of the Warring States