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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
1871: Germany Becomes a Nation
Notes taken on December 8, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
Japan ushered in a new age for the Japanese people
but in the course of their expansion began to transform the geo-political theater of East Asia
with tremendous consequences for the 20th century
1894-95: First Sino-Japanese War
became almost like a template of what would happen in the rest of the world
Germany, late 19th century
like Japan, national integration depends on the formation of state power
often in its assertion over neighbors
empire is used as a concept and instrument for nation building
a model of recovering from fragmentation, a collection of feudal statelets,
the remnants of an empire now being brought together over the course of the 19th century
particularly in the wake of the French invasions into Germany during the Napoleonic wars
and in some ways borrowing from Napoleon for examples of legal modernization
like the Japanese
Japan borrowed modern ideas from the United States
Germany borrowed ideas from England and France
consolidating the state, creating an illusion of a shared German space which in some sense had never existed before
but arguments were made to the opposite of this
that Germany was Protestant, while there were actually many Catholics and Jews
Germany had an identity that was somehow counterpoised to the other dominating national identity of Europe, France
became a long-standing conflict
sowed the seeds for the outbreaks in the 20th century
the Habsburgs looked upon the German empire as a threat to their strategic interests
Germany faced challenges that were very close to them
Japan at least had the advantage of being separated by large bodies of water
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
a shrewd and calculating politico
was the strong man of the single regimes of the German confederation of states
managed to promote the idea of a Kaiser, an imperial ruler who would issue his dominion over all of German-speaking peoples from a capital, a national capital, in Berlin
Germans like Japanese, to build nation, relied upon
schools, universities
language campaigns
newspapers, magazines
to transcend the local ideas of Prussia, Bavaria
promoting new business elites
looking for a national market
the birth of emerging industrialists
many of the firms are still the companies that dominate the economic landscape of economic Germany today
also needed a way of cajoling these elites into participating in unification
representation in the national political entities like the national parliament, the Reichstag
local wars
Prussian army became the important instrument for creating a new national model of integration
laid the foundations for a national war with France, 1870-71
this war was decisive
Prussia spanked the French
it was a deeply humiliating war for the French
put the French national identities into another one of its seismic crises
emboldened the idea that the Prussian military could pull the German nation together
a decisive moment of unification for the new German nation
after 1871, Germany began to consolidate more and more led but Bismarck
first Chancellor Bismarck
power radiating out to a unified Germany from Berlin
the system of Iron and Blood
iron = exemplified the toughness and resilience of the new nation
blood = sacrifice
unification of Germany altered the power balance of Europe
created a new model of territorial rivalry inside the heart of Europe
with much more lethal potential
Germany and Japan almost like echoes of each other
phenomenal examples of the power of nationalism to construct new state systems that could use its resources at the expense of old systems adjacent to them
political, military, and economic powerhouses
not unlike a teenage boy who returns to school from summer vacation grown and all bulked up with muscles, as the French and the Chinese were to discover