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C O U R S E 
The Rooseveltian Century
Giles Scott-Smith, Universiteit Leiden
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Notes taken on February 16, 2016 by Edward Tanguay
born 1882 in Hyde Park in upstate New York
came from the wealthy and aristocratic from the Hyde Park branch of the family
parents provided him with the best education possible
he attended Groton School in Groton, Massachusetts
graduated in history at Harvard
studied law at Columbia University
1905 married a distant cousin, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt
had six children
he began practicing at a New York law firm but politics was his main passion
elected to the New York State Senate, but as a Democrat
1912 supported Wilson's campaign
William appointed him to the same post that had brought Theodore Roosevelt to prominence, Assistant Secretary of the Navy
loved sailing
specialized in the business side of naval administration
1920 named Democrat candidate for the vice president, along with presidential hopeful, James Cox
lost that election to Harding/Coolidge
the United States retreated into isolationism
FDR returned to private life
1921 while vacationing at Campobello Island, he contracted polio
in spite of all his efforts, he never regained the use of his legs
with support of Eleanor and his political adviser, he resumed his political career
after strenuous campaign in 1928, he was elected as governor of New York
while the Great Depression was damaging President Hoover and the Republicans
his efforts to combat it in New York enhanced his reputation
1932 he won the presidency by seven million votes
once elected, he faced the greatest crisis in American history since the Civil War
urgent actions were needed to reverse the economic collapse
these measures became his New Deal program
during the first 100 days, he sent much legislation to congress
saved millions from starvation
involved the government directly in areas of social and economic life as never before
1936 due to enormous popularity of the New Deal, he easily defeated Alf Landon (1887-1987)
1939 outbreak of war in Europe
had to increasingly concentrate on foreign affairs
when Hitler attacked Poland
immediately took measures to prepare for American involvement
despite isolationist opposition
1940 fall of France: increase preparations
U.S. Congress enacted a draft for military service, FDR signed a lend-lease bill to help the nations at war with Germany and Italy
he believed America must become the arsenal of democracy
the last defense of world freedom
1941 Pearl Harbor attack
made many decisions on war-time strategy
created a Grand Alliance against the Axis Powers
FDR, Churchill, Stalin
the unending stress of the war wore Roosevelt out
1944 strict diet and heavy medication
successfully campaigned for a fourth presidential term
April 1945 in Georgia, suffered stroke
died at the age of 63
his death came on the eve of complete military victory for the United States