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C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Post-WWI: Filling the Void of Collapsed Empires
Notes taken on August 14, 2013 by Edward Tanguay
Woodrow Wilson had talked about a peace without victory
popular vision for a world exhausted by war
but if you were e.g. France where the Germans had largely destroyed your country, you may not be for this vision
problems that peace makers faced
five empires collapsed between 1912 and 1922
Qing Empire
The Qing dynasty that had ruled China since 1644 was over
China was turning into a place of anarchy and warlords
German Empire
Hohenzollern dynasty that had ruled Prussia for centuries was over
Kaiser goes into exile in Holland
Austrian Empire
Hapsburg dynasty that had ruled central Europe for centuries was over
Ottoman Empire
had ruled much Southeast Asia and parts of Europe for centuries
last Sultan abdicates at end of the war
Russian Empire
Romonov dynasty that had ruled Russia for centuries was over
if five empires have disappeared, what takes their place and how does this affect the peace process
who is in charge?
by what principles are the people going to be ruled?
much score settling going on
there are treaties to decide the fate of Germany and Austria, etc., many people see these treaties as failures
war ended suddenly so there was not much time to plan the treaties
how much to break up Germany
Poland reinstated and given an outlet to the see and the city of Danzig being administered by the League of Nations
German gives up Alsace and Lorraine provinces which it had taken from France in Franco-Prussian war of 1871
the industrial area of Germany placed under strict limits to prevent it from building up military agains
Austro-Hungarian Empire
divided up into a new set of component state
Romania, which came out on the Allied side, is particularly enlarged, and included many Austrians
Yugoslavia: a mixture of "south slavs"
national principle
how far to you take a national principle, should every state be ethnically pure or how pure does it need to be or what laws need to be in place to prevent tensions within in
Treaty of Sèvres
Peace treaty of 1920 which partitioned the Ottoman Empire, giving Greece part of the mainland of Turkey, annulled in the course of the Turkish War of Independence and the parties signed and ratified the superseding Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.
League of Nations
preventing wars through collective security and disarmament
settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration
lacked armed forces
largely failed as it did not prevent WWII
replaced by UN after WWII
in effect said to the French: you look after Syria until they are ready to run their country themselves
three treaties
political relationships of great powers
arms control treaty which regulates the size of the great powers
Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)
was the Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election, losing narrowly to Woodrow Wilson
later chief justice of Supreme Court
future of China
1922: all powers respect the territory of China
Japan had Korea as colony
Japanese withdrew from mainland China
after-war skirmishes
Polish–Soviet War (1919-1921)
Poland's Chief of State, Józef Pilsudski, felt the time was right to expand Polish borders as far east as feasible
Lenin, meanwhile, saw Poland as the bridge the Red Army had to cross to assist other communist movements and bring about other European revolutions
By 1919, Polish forces had taken control of much of Western Ukraine
Hungarian communist revolution, and counter revolution to destroy it
revolutions in Germany
disorder throughout Eastern Europe
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)
Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922)
sought to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern, secular, and democratic nation-state
thousands of new schools were built, primary education was made free and compulsory, while the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced
despite his radical secular reforms, Atatürk remained broadly popular in the Muslim world
remembered for being the creator of a new, fully independent Muslim country at a time of encroachment by Christian powers, and for having prevailed in a struggle against Western imperialism
Atatürk became a model of how a country can fight back against imperial powers, modernize itself, and at the same time have its own issues including ethnic cleansing against the Greeks and Armenians