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C O U R S E 
A Beginner's Guide to Irrational Behavior
Prof. Dan Ariely, Duke University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
How Effort Leads to Fondness of the End Result
Notes taken on April 24, 2017 by Edward Tanguay
gave people sheet of paper with randomly arranged letters
asked them to find pairs of letters
paid them, but less for each sheet they did
each time they turned in a sheet they could define if they wanted to continue
three conditions
1. acknowledged condition: when they handed it in, the experimenter looked at it, said "ah-hah" and put it down
participants stopped at $0.15 per page
2. ignored condition: experimenter didn't say anything and just put it on the pile
participants stopped at $0.30 per page, just like the shredder
3. the shredder: took the sheet and put it through a shredder
participants stopped at $0.30 per page
acknowledgement increases motivation
ignoring people is just as demotivating as shredding their work
it's easy to keep people motivated, and it is easy to make them demotivated
bought a chest for toys
was difficult to assemble
but because one assembles it, one has an personal attachment to it
it's not that I don't remember the agony of building it, but I am fond of it
the more effort you put into something, the more you admire it
cake mixes
it was thought that housewives would love these
the reality was that people did not like the cake mixes
the egg theory
if you take powder and you mix it with water and you bake it, it is too easy for you to take credit for it
it feels like opening a can and pouring it in a pot
so they took egg and the milk powder out of the mix and required the customer to add these ingredients themselves
it became more popular
the lesson is that you can make a product require more effort on the part of the customer and nevertheless like it more
origami experiment
gave people a sheet of instructions to create a piece of origami art
reality that what people created was not that good
asked other people to evaluate them
the builders felt their own was worth more
the builders thought that others would love it as well
one group got instruction with less text, so these were uglier
the uglier ones felt better about their own
more effort creates love
but if someone made something that did not resemble origami at all, they had no attachment to it
allow customers to design your own products
allow customers to build their own
make customers have to put a lot of effort into it
but you don't want to make them invest so much effort that they can't create the product at all