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C O U R S E 
What Managers Can Learn from Great Philosophers
Luc de Brabandere, École Centrale Paris
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Two Types of Change: Perception and Reality
Notes taken on April 26, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
a CEO is in charge of change
we have to understand the deep nature of change in order to be a good manager of change
Parmenides was convinced that change is not possible
Heraclitus believed in ever-present change
The Prince, a book about change and resistance of change
to change is a challenge
there are two types of change
1. the change of reality
like a tree that is growing, each week it is different
they way your company continually changes over time
2. the change of perception
the way you look at your company
this is a difference kind of change
discontinuous change
changing your perception happens instantly
a CEO in charge of change has to cope with the two types of change and the rules for each type of change are completely different
not only your perception, but your client's perception
to change is to change twice
example #1: someone is always late
1. change in reality
GPS in the car
meetings scheduled later
its not enough
2. change in perception
has to change perception of punctuality
"I want to be on time, I have time for a coffee and am better prepared"
example #2: journalism
1. change in reality
people used to receive a newspaper and read it
now they find stories from many newspapers via Google
2. change in perception
we have to realize that as we read, we also give information to Google
example #3: mergers
when two banks merge
changing reality: you have to build a reality of one single accounting system, one single computer system
changing minds: people need to change how they go about their work, this is often the forgotten half of change
there has to be a new mental model in people's minds
for a CEO it is hard to master, but it is necessary
CEO needs a simplified vision
a new vision involves not just a change of degree but a paradigm shift, a different way of perceiving