More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
The Modern World: Global History since 1760
Prof. Philip Zelikow, University of Virginia
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
WWII: Strategies for Total War
Notes taken on April 16, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
why did the Allies win WWII?
which model of government would be most effective in mobilizing its resources to pass the ultimate test of survival in an all out war
Germany: War of Annihilation
Nazis had a vision of a New World Order, one in which a master race which they defined would be on top, and all the other races would be subordinate
1942: large area of Europe under their control
population and GDP was alarmingly high, but when you are subjugating other peoples and treating them as a subordinate race, you have a hard time maximizing their economic potential
imperial plans in the East
in some parts of the Soviet Union, the Nazis were seen as liberators since they hated Stalin and his suppressive government so much
yet it was realized that the treatment by the Nazis was not much better and so these people were not mobilized to the German cause
Nazi regime begin to envision the extinction of entire populations of people they regarded as enemies
"final solution" for the Jews
came in degrees: first imprison them or push them out of the country, push them East, but then there were too many of them in prisons, and they were there again when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union
1940-1942: began constructing factories to kill people industrially, something that states, human beings, had never embarked upon before
widespread extermination of Pole population
Germans had East Front, Africa, Atlantic submarine war, and trying to protect their skies from air raids
Soviet Union
the Soviet Union's survival in WWII deserves some attention, it survives by envisioning the possibilities of a kind of "Communist Sparta", taking the notion of a command society to its ultimate end
WWII is a war of attrition: muscle on muscle, numbers on numbers
the thing that keeps surprising the Germans is they keep assuming that the Soviets should be out of soldiers, how can they keep building all these tanks, where are they getting all these armies from?
the fact was, however, that in 1941-1942, the populations and GDP of both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were roughly the same
so the mystery was how the Soviets got such an astonishing amount of outputs from a comparable set of inputs?
in 1941, the Soviets had significantly more, in 1942 often double, the number of tanks, aircraft than the Germans, often not the same quality, but this was more a war of brute strength and numbers
even in 1942 when Germany is occupying some of the Soviet country denying them of many factories
these two countries are both dictatorships, but the Soviets a better organized dictatorship and command economy than the Germans do
demand more sacrifices from their people
do more to conscript more soldiers
and they are not exterminating a significant portion of their population as the Nazi regime was
Soviet communism was a more efficient system to run an all-out war economy than was Nazi fascism
how could the Soviet Union turn their entire economy into a war economy producing a maximum of war equipment?
you have to make trade-offs, e.g. you won't be able to make many civilian products
but in 1942-1944, the Americans were supplying some of these other products
can concentrate on one zone of combat, the Germans can't do that
but for the Soviets, it is a close war, they do not have inexhaustible resources
1942 is the critical year
Soviets can leverage superior war material production to launch offensives that the Germans think the Soviets should not be able to launch
Stalingrad is a significant success for the Soviets
British and Americans are putting pressure on Germans on other fronts
USA: The Juggler
have many commitments
three major fronts in the Pacific
getting supplies to the Soviets
jointly occupied Iran
skies of Germany
getting ready to launch battle in north of France
running factories and farms in States
to organize this effort, they built the Pentagon
the largest office building in the world
four gambles:
1. keep focus on Germany
2. can get by with a relatively small army
navy and air force were larger
leverage the power of the Soviet army
3. redouble bet on air power against Germany
in 1942, Allied bombing campaign against Germany was failing
in 1943 begins to divert German effort: 30% of the cannon barrels of the Third Reich are pointing at the sky
by 1944, bombing begins to have a tremendous impact
break down Germany oil and transportation industries
4. bet that they can make an atomic bomb (early 1943)
only the Americans had the scientific confidence and bravado to pull this off and have the resources to do it
the Japanese and the Germans considered it but decided it was too hard
by mid 1945, an atomic bomb was ready to use