More notes at http://tanguay.info/learntracker
C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
The Train, the Rifle, and the Industrial Revolution
Notes taken on August 10, 2015 by Edward Tanguay
the global upheavals that happening in the mid 19th century were part of a global economic process
result of changes that began to intensify
a shift in the world from interconnected to interdependent
societies which were able to take care of themselves were now increasingly dependent on other societies
societies are not just in contact with each other, they're not even just influencing each other, they have become dependent upon each other
two drivers in this process of global interdependence
1. the effects of the Industrial Revolution had as it rippled around the world
the deepening of the Industrial Revolution transformed the global division of labor
gives rises to new economies that define their existence and prosperity on the ability to export goods for European consumption
local artisans in China, France, in many places will face competition
2. the expansion of new frontiers
the combination of markets and financial resources began to penetrate the hinterlands of the world
protests occur when there are abrupt and perceived changes in mobility patterns
particularly as people become suddenly downwardly mobile
or there is a rise in social uncertainty about how people are going to meet their needs
don't necessarily give rise to unrest
necessary conditions but not sufficient conditions for unrest
it needs the break in a political system
allows for the social discontent to arise to the surface
the prophets of Taiping experienced a crises in the nature of the Chinese state
technological changes
had multiplier effects on the Industrial Revolution
these revolutions are not instant and have ripple effects
there were a whole set of cultural forces that led to revolutions and technological innovations intensified them
1. immobile steam engine
burn coal, boil water, drive piston cylinders
1769 Watt (inventor) and Boulton (industrialist), Steam Engine
a coalition of tinkers and investors
applied to stationary machinery
cotton mill
the proportion of machinery to men, increases what a man can produce
allows cotton textiles to be sold to larger markets
but you needed cotton
rejuvenates economy of United States South
especially after 1803 with Louisiana Purchase, new lands, new capabilities
expansion of cotton production in South is connected to Industrial Revolution in Europe
India as well, exported cotton to Great Britain
transformed villages from self-sustaining entities to entities for producing export
increasing distinction between societies which produce goods for export to manufacturing countries, and those who produce goods for manufacture
2. immobile steam engine
if an engine could move, it could also pull
enabled people to move into the hinterlands around the world
collapsed the difference between interiors and coastlines
to integrate these areas into the global marketplace
until 1850, canals and roads were most important
after 1850, railroad production takes off
railways KM opened, 1850 to 1875,
US: 14,000 to 119,000 ***
Britain: 10,000 to 23,000
Germany: 6,000 to 28,000
Canada: 100 to 7,000
India: 30 to 10,000
Russia: 500 to 19,000
just the beginning of a new era of integration
societies get reoriented by these technologies
3. changes in weaponry
Napoleonic Wars were last large-scale wars that were fought with muskets
a smooth (not spiral) bore picture
musket had problem short range and low accuracy
cumbersome and slow
Industrial Revolution transformed the lethality of warfare
total war and global war would change dramatically
development of the rifle as a more precise and economic way of building weapons
had spiral bore
greater accuracy
increased velocity
slow to load and hence confined initially to hunting
muzzle loading as well (from mouth of gun)
because of the nature of the barrel, harder
hard to produce because of the spiral barrel
but Industrial Revolution's ability to mass produce objects becomes better and better
many innovations in 1840s led to the mass production of rifles in 1850s with an increasing rate of fire
cylindrical bullet
interchangeable parts
easier to manufacture
U.S.: Springfield
Britain: Enfield