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C O U R S E 
The Music of the Beatles
John Covach, University of Rochester
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
Hamburg and Liverpool
Notes taken on April 15, 2014 by Edward Tanguay
1960-1962 Hamburg and Liverpool
the Liverpool scene was extremely active, but was made up of many amateurs who had day jobs, a rich musical environment
conducive to young musicians
pop music in West Germany in late 1950s and early 1960s
Schlager scene
Freddy Quinn
Tommy Kent
Ted Herold (Germany's Elvis)
this was the German version of American Rock and Roll
Bert Kaempfert
1961: Wonderland by Night
mover and shaker in pop scene in West Germany
Bruno Koschmider
owned first club in Hamburg where Beatles played
Allen Williams had come to Hamburg from England to get gigs for many bands
walking around Hamburg for a place that would be best
heard some rock and roll and meet Bruno Koschmider
Williams had a tape that had been erased, missed opportunity
Koschmider later goes back to London by mistake to look for Williams
met Tony Sheridan who came to Hamburg
Hamburg had legalized prostitution and drugs, sin city of Europe, needed bands
Williams and Koschmider get reconnected again
Beatles Hamburg stints
first stint: August 1960
John Lennon is 20, Paul McCartney is 18, George Harrison is 17, underage, which led him to being thrown out of the country at the end of the engagement
end of 1960: played the Indra and the Kaiserkeller
April 1961: come back and play at Top Ten
August 1961: recorded with Tony Sheridan
Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers
April 1962: The Star Club
November 1962: The Star Club
December 1962: The Star Club
they tried to do the songs as closely as possible to the original, e.g. "That's Alright, Mama", sounded quite like Elvis
assimilated much of the characteristics of American pop
six sets a night, a brutal schedule, started using amphetamines
what happens when you play so much is that you either burn out and quit, or you get really good, and what happened with the Beatles is that they got really good
in Hamburg they were still wearing leather jackets
but when they came back to England people noticed that they had improved considerably
Beatles very active around Liverpool
not the only musicians from Liverpool to have success in the UK
Frankie Vaughan
Lita Rosa
Michael Holliday
Billy Fury
Johnny Gentle
but the Beatles didn't try to hide their northernness
Feb 1961: debut at Cavern Club
Nov 1961: Brian Epstein sees Beatles at Cavern Club
Jan 1962: Decca audition, Epstein signs the band
Mar 1962: First appearance on BBC
Apr 1962: Stu Sutcliffe dies
May 1962: Epstein meets George Martin (record producer)
this is the beginning of the Beatles moving out of their Liverpool environment and toward London
Brian Epstein
manager of the Beatles
older than them, but friendly with them and had a relationship that wasn't as different as with George Martin
born into a well-off family that owned furniture stores
got kicked out of schools, did dress design
a Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
get involved in the pop scene in 1960s
had a record department in the family furniture store, since a record player was a big piece of furtniture at that time
he ran the NEMS Record Store
writing articles in a music magazine in the Mersey Beat, important for Liverpool bands
1960, Ted Herold, West Germany's Elvis Presley: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lNAXDokHA0g
Great reenacted moments in Rock-n-Roll history, lunch hour at The Cavern in Liverpool when Brian Epstein sees the Beatles play for the first time: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLI3GchDr0M