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C O U R S E 
A History of the World since 1300
Jeremy Adelman, Princeton University
C O U R S E   L E C T U R E 
16th Century Colonialism Fueling European Violence
Notes taken on November 3, 2013 by Edward Tanguay
for all of the European bullying in the Indian Ocean, they had to adapt to existing institutions
gaining access to the supply of goods that they wanted was very complicated
in the rivalry between the European powers, local traders could use this to their advantage and play them against each other
local traders were making money in this business as well
pepper prices were very high at this time
Arab traders realized that they could manipulate the Europeans by flooding the market, making prices go up and down
Dutch had to spend more money on defenses while their businesses were beginning to yield losses
Europeans went after choke points in the Indian Ocean usually run by Sultanate families conducting and managing trade but did not have the defense systems set up as did the Chinese
China wasn't vulnerable in this way because they were an agrarian dynasty instead of a dynasty reliant on Arab trade
China relied more on taxes skimmed off of agricultural producers instead of rent from merchants
hence the Europeans went after those more vulnerable polities reliant on trade
alliances were formed between strong Sultanate families and European powers
so there was a different model of empire for Europeans in East Asia than in the Americas
the Dutch created the Spice Islands as colonies but otherwise what Europeans tended to do in East Asia was to control the trade systems from the peripheries of the Asian dynasties
for the most part, the Europeans were not creating power kingdoms and colonies as they were doing in the Americas
aside from capturing and showing their mercantile muscle in the most vulnerable choke points and entrepôts such as Macao, Hormuz, Bengal, and Calicut, the Europeans barely touching down on the surfaces of East Asian trade systems
and for all of the bullying, the Portuguese were soon forced to roll back, the Mughals drove them out of Bengal in 1632
Japan did the same to all the missionaries and traders who arrived in Japan in 1637
so by the late 17th century, the Europeans had a few points of minor control in East Asia which was in contrast to the vast colonies they were controlling in the Americas
East India resembled more the trading points of Africa than they did the American colonies
nevertheless, the European influence in East Asia was the beginnings of the reordering of the region
and the reordering of East Asia wound up augmenting a disequilibrium within Europe itself
the wealth that poured in from the rest of the world had a mixed blessing for many of the states, particularly for the Spanish since Spain was now under attack all over: abroad and in Europe, and compelled to defend a model of religious tradition and devotion against heretics in the form of the reformation from 1520 on, there are simmering disputes in Germany spreading to Holland, then part of the Spanish empire, and to England and elsewhere.
1520 Reformation
Martin Luther publishes on the freedom of Christian man
gives rise to a century of religious wars of denominational cultures within Europe
overlaps with and intensifies the rivalries between the dynasties of Europe
new world silver, drawn out of Andean mines, was used to fuel these religious wars
silver funded the Reformation and Counter-Reformation struggles
1534 Jesuits founded to defend piety
war in Holland because Spain's Vietnam
each side of the political struggle in Europe depended on a system of predation and exploitation the rest of the world
they needed to harass resources to wage the war at home
so the globalization of European power fueled the violence within Europe itself
1572: St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
1618-1648: Thirty Years War
Treaty of Westphalia
change in diplomacy in Europe
put end to major conflicts
left Spain heavily indebted, a world power dependent ever more on its colonies to sustain itself
rise of Holland, France, England
an end to the dream that Europe might be governed by a new Roman Empire, able to go liberate the Holy land, a fantasy of the political leaders in Europe for centuries